The number of words, which is equal to the number of letters in each word, is known as the "order" of the square. For example, this is an order 5 square:.
A popular puzzle dating well into ancient times, the word square is sometimes compared to the magic square , though apart from the fact that both use square grids there is no real connection between the two. The Sator Square is a famous word square in Latin. Its canonical form reads as follows. In addition to satisfying the basic properties of word squares, the Sator Square spread widely due to several other attributes: it is palindromic ; it can be read as a sentence of obscure meaning; and additional meaning such as reference to the Christian Paternoster prayer can be derived from its letters.
However, the word "Arepo" appears nowhere else in Latin literature; most of those who have studied the Sator Square agree that it is to be taken as a proper name, either an adaptation of a non-Latin word or, more likely, a name invented specifically for this sentence. If the "words" in a word square need not be true words, arbitrarily large squares of pronounceable combinations can be constructed.
An English edition appeared in This is square 7 of Chapter IX of the Third Book, which is full of incomplete and complete "squares". No source or explanation is given for any of the "words", so this square does not meet the standards for legitimate word squares.
Modern research indicates that a square would be essentially impossible to construct from indexed words and phrases, even using a large number of languages. However, equally large English-language squares consisting of arbitrary phrases containing dictionary words are relatively easy to construct; they too are not considered true word squares, but they have been published in The Enigma and other puzzle magazines as "Something Different" squares.
A specimen of the order-six square or 6-square was first published in English in ; the 7-square in ; the 8-square in ; and the 9-square in The following is one of several "perfect" nine-squares in English all words in major dictionaries, uncapitalized, and unpunctuated : . A square is naturally much harder to find, and a "perfect" square in English has been hunted since Since , squares have been constructed from reduplicated words and phrases like "Alala!
Each such square contains five words appearing twice, which in effect constitutes four identical 5-squares. Darryl Francis and Dmitri Borgmann succeeded in using near-tautonyms second- and third-order reduplication to employ seven different entries by pairing " orangutang " with "urangutang" and "ranga-ranga" with "tanga-tanga", as follows: . However, "word researchers have always regarded the tautonymic ten-square as an unsatisfactory solution to the problem. In , Frank Rubin produced an incomplete ten-square containing two nonsense phrases at the top and eight dictionary words.
From the s, Jeff Grant had a long history of producing well-built squares; concentrating on the ten-square from to , he produced the first three traditional ten-squares by relying on reasonable coinages such as "Sol Springs" various extant people named Sol Spring and "ses tunnels" French for "its tunnels".
His continuing work produced one of the best of this genre, making use of "impolarity" found on the Internet and the plural of "Tony Nader" found in the white pages , as well as words verified in more traditional references:. By combining common first and last names and verifying the results in white-pages listings, Steve Root of Westboro, Massachusetts , was able to document the existence of all ten names below total number of people found is listed after each line :.
Around , Rex Gooch of Letchworth, England , analyzed available wordlists and computing requirements and compiled one or two hundred specialized dictionaries and indexes to provide a reasonably strong vocabulary. In Word Ways in August and November , he published several squares found in this wordlist.
The square below has been held by some word square experts as essentially solving the square problem Daily Mail , The Times , while others anticipate higher-quality squares in the future. You didn't download a. Improve this answer. Jonathon Reinhart Jonathon Reinhart k 27 27 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Thanks for your response sir, The path I downloaded this php file is "website.
I'm guessing you downloaded the PHP binary, which is mostly useless. Thank you so much for your Info sir The Overflow Blog. Level Up: Mastering statistics with Python — part 2. What I wish I had known about single page applications. Featured on Meta.
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