For example:. This date overflowed the bit field that had been used in the Decsystem 10 operating systems. There were numerous problems and crashes related to this bug while an alternative format was developed.
Even before 1 January arrived, there were also some worries about 9 September albeit less than those generated by Y2K. It was thus possible that database programs might act on the records containing unknown dates on that day. Data entry operators commonly entered into required fields for an unknown future date, e.
While fears arose that some programs might unexpectedly terminate on that date, the bug was more likely to confuse computer operators than machines. Normally, a year is a leap year if it is evenly divisible by four. A year divisible by , however, is not a leap year in the Gregorian calendar unless it is also divisible by For example, was a leap year, but , and were not.
Some programs may have relied on the oversimplified rule that a year divisible by four is a leap year. This method works fine for the year because it is a leap year , and will not become a problem until , when older legacy programs will likely have long since been replaced. Other programs contained incorrect leap year logic, assuming for instance that no year divisible by could be a leap year.
An assessment of this leap year problem including a number of real life code fragments appeared in Some systems had problems once the year rolled over to The main source of problems was confusion between hexadecimal number encoding and binary-coded decimal encodings of numbers. Both hexadecimal and BCD encode the numbers 0—9 as 0x0—0x9. But BCD encodes the number 10 as 0x10, whereas hexadecimal encodes the number 10 as 0x0A; 0x10 interpreted as a hexadecimal encoding represents the number Windows Mobile is the first software reported to have been affected by this glitch; in some cases WM6 changes the date of any incoming SMS message sent after 1 January from the year "" to "".
The most important occurrences of such a glitch were in Germany, where upwards of 20 million bank cards became unusable, and with Citibank Belgium, whose digipass customer identification chips failed. As a long integer in bit systems uses 64 bits, the problem does not realistically exist on bit systems that use the LP64 model.
However, the fix for the timestamps would work only till the year Several very different approaches were used to solve the Year problem in legacy systems. Five of them follow:. When 1 January arrived, there were problems generally regarded as minor. Some programs were not active at that moment and problems would only show up when they were invoked.
Not all problems recorded were directly linked to Y2K programming in a causality ; minor technological glitches occur on a regular basis. Some software did not correctly recognise as a leap year, and so worked on the basis of the year having days. On the last day of day these systems exhibited various errors. These were generally minor. In addition to the Year problem, various issues have occurred due to errors involving overflows.
Some software used a process called date windowing to fix the issue by interpreting years as and as As a result, a new wave of glitches started appearing in , including parking meters in New York City refusing to accept credit cards, issues with Novitus point of sale units, and some utility companies printing bills listing the year Although only two digits are allocated for the birth year in the Bulgarian national identification number , the year problem and subsequently the Y2K problem were addressed by the use of unused values above 12 in the month range.
For all persons born before , the month is stored as the calendar month plus 20, and for all persons born after , the month is stored as the calendar month plus Norway and Finland changed their national identification number , to indicate the century in which a person was born.
In both countries, the birth year was historically indicated by two digits only. This numbering system had already given rise to a similar problem, the " Year problem ", which arose due to problems distinguishing between people born in the 20th and 19th centuries.
Y2K fears drew attention to an older issue, while prompting a solution to a new problem. Romania also changed its national identification number in response to the Y2K problem, due to the birth year being represented by only two digits. Before , the first digit, which shows the person's gender, was 1 for males and 2 for females. Starting from 1 January , the Romanian national identification number starts with 5 for males and 6 for females.
This put Uganda in the "top 20" out of national governments, and on a par with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Japan, and ahead of Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland which were rated as only "somewhat informative". Courtesy Ed Harris. Warm up with these 3 hearty and healthy vegan soups. Lose weight and banish stress with these walking plans.
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