If you have epilepsy, ask your pharmacist or doctor for recommendations about using OTC medicines. Medicines for runny and stuffed noses containing pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine appear to be relatively safe, but there are reports of seizures caused by these drugs too.
Read the labels and talk to your health care provider. Nasal saline sprays are safe to use for runny or stuffed noses from allergies or colds. For aches and pains, acetaminophen such as Tylenol, Panadol, Excedrin Aspirin Free is probably the safest medication. Having a seizure at certain times can lead to circumstances that are dangerous for you or others. You might be at risk of:. Our patients tell us that the quality of their interactions, our attention to detail and the efficiency of their visits mean health care like they've never experienced.
See the stories of satisfied Mayo Clinic patients. Janice Breien was anxious to find a better way to manage the seizures that regularly disrupted her daily life. Enter her Mayo care team -- ready to listen and provide solutions. Now, with her seizures under control, Janice has a renewed sense of optimism. Before coming to Mayo Clinic, Denny Hinshaw had lived with epileptic seizures for more than 10 years, and they were eroding his personal and professional life.
Since Denny came to Mayo Clinic for care, however, all that is in the past. Kristy, Declyn and Gavin Vreeland There was a time when Gavin Vreeland was afraid he might hurt his daughter should he have a seizure while caring for her. Despite taking medication, his epileptic episodes happened frequently and without warning. But after specialized imaging and targeted brain surgery at Mayo Clinic, Gavin is now happily embracing [ Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.
Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Request an appointment. As Rand completed new chapters, she read them to a circle of young confidants who had begun gathering at her home to discuss philosophy. She spent more than two years completing the speech, finishing it on October 13, Atlas Shrugged was Rand's last completed work of fiction.
It marked a turning point in her life—the end of her career as a novelist and the beginning of her role as a popular philosopher. To depict the industrial setting of Atlas Shrugged , Rand conducted research on the American railroad and steel industries. She toured and inspected a number of industrial facilities, such as the Kaiser Steel plant,  visited facilities of the New York Central Railroad ,   and even briefly operated a locomotive on the Twentieth Century Limited.
Robert Oppenheimer , which influenced the character Robert Stadler and the novel's depiction of the development of "Project X".
Rand's descriptions of Galt's Gulch were based on the town of Ouray, Colorado , which Rand and her husband visited in when they were relocating from Los Angeles to New York.
For example, her portrayal of leftist intellectuals such as the characters Balph Eubank and Simon Pritchett was influenced by the college experiences of Nathaniel and Barbara Branden,  and Alan Greenspan provided information on the economics of the steel industry.
Libertarian writer Justin Raimondo described similarities between Atlas Shrugged and Garet Garrett 's novel The Driver , which is about an idealized industrialist named Henry Galt, who is a transcontinental railway owner trying to improve the world and fighting against government and socialism.
Bradford said Raimondo made an unconvincing comparison based on a coincidence of names and common literary devices. But in plot, character, tone, and theme they are very different. Due to the success of Rand's novel The Fountainhead , she had no trouble attracting a publisher for Atlas Shrugged. This was a contrast to her previous novels, which she had struggled to place. Even before she began writing it, she had been approached by publishers interested in her next novel.
However, her contract for The Fountainhead gave the first option to its publisher, Bobbs-Merrill Company. After reviewing a partial manuscript, they asked her to discuss cuts and other changes.
She refused, and Bobbs-Merrill rejected the book. Hiram Hayden, an editor she liked who had left Bobbs-Merrill, asked her to consider his new employer, Random House. In an early discussion about the difficulties of publishing a controversial novel, Random House president Bennett Cerf proposed that Rand should submit the manuscript to multiple publishers simultaneously and ask how they would respond to its ideas, so she could evaluate who might best promote her work.
Rand was impressed by the bold suggestion and by her overall conversations with them. After speaking with a few other publishers from about a dozen who were interested, Rand decided multiple submissions were not needed; she offered the manuscript to Random House.
Upon reading the portion Rand submitted, Cerf declared it a "great book" and offered Rand a contract. It was the first time Rand had worked with a publisher whose executives seemed enthusiastic about one of her books. Random House published the novel on October 10, The initial print run was , copies. The first paperback edition was published by New American Library in July , with an initial run of , Dutton in , with an introduction by Rand's heir, Leonard Peikoff.
The working title of the novel was The Strike , but Rand thought this title would reveal the mystery element of the novel prematurely. With Rearden unable to answer, d'Anconia gives his own advice: "To shrug".
The novel is divided into three parts consisting of ten chapters each. Each part is named in honor of one of Aristotle 's laws of logic : "Non-Contradiction" after the law of noncontradiction ; "Either-Or", which is a reference to the law of excluded middle ; and "A Is A" in reference to the law of identity.
The story of Atlas Shrugged dramatically expresses Rand's ethical egoism , her advocacy of " rational selfishness ", whereby all of the principal virtues and vices are applications of the role of reason as man's basic tool of survival or a failure to apply it : rationality, honesty, justice, independence, integrity, productiveness, and pride.
Rand's characters often personify her view of the archetypes of various schools of philosophy for living and working in the world. Robert James Bidinotto wrote, "Rand rejected the literary convention that depth and plausibility demand characters who are naturalistic replicas of the kinds of people we meet in everyday life, uttering everyday dialogue and pursuing everyday values.
But she also rejected the notion that characters should be symbolic rather than realistic. My characters are persons in whom certain human attributes are focused more sharply and consistently than in average human beings". In addition to the plot's more obvious statements about the significance of industrialists to society, and the sharp contrast to Marxism and the labor theory of value , this explicit conflict is used by Rand to draw wider philosophical conclusions, both implicit in the plot and via the characters' own statements.
Atlas Shrugged caricatures fascism , socialism , communism , and any state intervention in society, as allowing unproductive people to "leech" the hard-earned wealth of the productive, and Rand contends that the outcome of any individual's life is purely a function of their ability, and that any individual could overcome adverse circumstances, given ability and intelligence.
The concept "sanction of the victim" is defined by Leonard Peikoff as "the willingness of the good to suffer at the hands of the evil , to accept the role of sacrificial victim for the ' sin ' of creating values". If it turned out to be me, I have no right to complain". John Galt further explains the principle: "Evil is impotent and has no power but that which we let it extort from us", and, "I saw that evil was impotent Rand's view of the ideal government is expressed by John Galt: "The political system we will build is contained in a single moral premise: no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force", whereas "no rights can exist without the right to translate one's rights into reality—to think, to work and to keep the results—which means: the right of property".
In the world of Atlas Shrugged, society stagnates when independent productive agencies are socially demonized for their accomplishments. This is in agreement with an excerpt from a interview with Playboy magazine, in which Rand states: "What we have today is not a capitalist society, but a mixed economy—that is, a mixture of freedom and controls, which, by the presently dominant trend, is moving toward dictatorship.
The action in Atlas Shrugged takes place at a time when society has reached the stage of dictatorship. When and if this happens, that will be the time to go on strike, but not until then". Rand also depicts public choice theory , such that the language of altruism is used to pass legislation nominally in the public interest e.
Rand's heroes continually oppose "parasites", "looters", and "moochers" who demand the benefits of the heroes' labor. Edward Younkins describes Atlas Shrugged as "an apocalyptic vision of the last stages of conflict between two classes of humanity—the looters and the non-looters.
The looters are proponents of high taxation, big labor, government ownership, government spending, government planning, regulation, and redistribution". Some officials execute government policy, such as those who confiscate one state's seed grain to feed the starving citizens of another; others exploit those policies, such as the railroad regulator who illegally sells the railroad's supplies for his own profit.
Both use force to take property from the people who produced or earned it. The character Francisco d'Anconia indicates the role of "looters" and "moochers" in relation to money: "So you think that money is the root of all evil?
Have you ever asked what is the root of money? Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or the looters who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. The novel includes elements of mystery , romance , and science fiction. Ruddy if a screenplay could focus on the love story, Rand agreed and reportedly said, "That's all it ever was".
Technological progress and intellectual breakthroughs in scientific theory appear in Atlas Shrugged , leading some observers to classify it in the genre of science fiction. Riggenbach adds, "Rand's overall message with regard to science seems clear: the role of science in human life and human society is to provide the knowledge on the basis of which technological advancement and the related improvements in the quality of human life can be realized. But science can fulfill this role only in a society in which human beings are left free to conduct their business as they see fit.
Pierce describes it as a "romantic suspense novel" that is "at least a borderline case" of science fiction.
It peaked at number 3 on December 8, , and was on the list for 22 consecutive weeks. Sales of Atlas Shrugged increased following the financial crisis. The Economist reported that the year-old novel ranked 33rd among Amazon.
On April 2, , Atlas Shrugged ranked first in the "Fiction and Literature" category at Amazon and fifteenth in overall sales. Atlas Shrugged was generally disliked by critics.
Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein later wrote that "reviewers seemed to vie with each other in a contest to devise the cleverest put-downs"; one called it "execrable claptrap", while another said it showed "remorseless hectoring and prolixity". Is it a nightmare?
There were some positive reviews. Richard McLaughlin, reviewing the novel for The American Mercury , described it as a "long overdue" polemic against the welfare state with an "exciting, suspenseful plot", although unnecessarily long. He drew a comparison with the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin , saying that a "skillful polemicist" did not need a refined literary style to have a political impact. Atlas Shrugged has attracted an energetic and committed fan base.
Each year, the Ayn Rand Institute donates , copies of works by Rand, including Atlas Shrugged , to high school students. Rand's impact on contemporary libertarian thought has been considerable. The title of one libertarian magazine, Reason : Free Minds, Free Markets , is taken directly from John Galt, the hero of Atlas Shrugged , who argues that "a free mind and a free market are corollaries".
In a tribute written on the 20th anniversary of the novel's publication, libertarian philosopher John Hospers praised it as "a supreme achievement, guaranteed of immortality". Former Rand business partner and lover Nathaniel Branden has expressed differing views of Atlas Shrugged.
He was initially quite favorable to it, and even after he and Rand ended their relationship, he still referred to it in an interview as "the greatest novel that has ever been written", although he found "a few things one can quarrel with in the book". He criticized the potential psychological impact of the novel, stating that John Galt's recommendation to respond to wrongdoing with "contempt and moral condemnation" clashes with the view of psychologists who say this only causes the wrongdoing to repeat itself.
The Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises admired the unapologetic elitism he saw in Rand's work. In a letter to Rand written a few months after the novel's publication, he said it offered "a cogent analysis of the evils that plague our society, a substantiated rejection of the ideology of our self-styled 'intellectuals' and a pitiless unmasking of the insincerity of the policies adopted by governments and political parties You have the courage to tell the masses what no politician told them: you are inferior and all the improvements in your conditions which you simply take for granted you owe to the efforts of men who are better than you.
In the years immediately following the novel's publication, many American conservatives , such as William F. Buckley, Jr. Conservative commentators Neal Boortz ,  Glenn Beck , and Rush Limbaugh  offered praise of the book on their respective radio and television programs. Sign Up. Symptoms of Seizures. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback!
What are your concerns? Article Sources. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Related Articles. Rescue Seizure Medications. How Epilepsy Is Treated. Recognizing Brain Cancer Symptoms. What Is a Convulsion? Could It Be a Brain Tumor? Signs and Symptoms of 8 Common Childhood Cancers.
When Paralysis Occurs After a Seizure.
The Amazing Pudding (Atom Heart Mother), Find Your Way Back - Craig Chaquico - Panorama (CD), Mama Say A Prayer - Susan McCann - Down River Road (Vinyl, LP), Ol 55 - Tom Waits - Closing Time (CD, Album), Stillstand - Gloomster - 2012 (Vinyl, LP), Kleine Anuschka - Alexandra (7) - Ein Musikalisches Portrait (Vinyl, LP), Weve Got Plenty Of Time (Take 1) - The Rutles - Rutles To Let!! (CD, Album), Chin Up - Opus - Walkin On Air (CD, Album), Beyond The Forest Of Darkness (Live) - Hell Poemer / Eternal Darkness (2) - .Crossing The Ancient P, Want Version - Mark Stewart - Exorcism Of Envy (Vinyl, LP, Album, Album), Μπόμπα - Μιχάλης Μενιδιάτης, Απόστολος Καλδάρας - Τα Παράπονά Μου (CD, Album), Time Overload (Demo) - Devin Townsend Project - Transcendence (CD, Album), Gravelle - Various - Musiques A La Carte (Vinyl, LP) Abyss (27) - Like Nothing Weve Dealt With Before (File)