The series was also made into movies beginning in , and inspired the creation of a wizard-themed amusement park in Universal Studios.
In April of the Hale-Bopp comet reached its brightest point as it passed at its closest point to the Sun. It became plainly visible to the human eye in May of and continued to be visible in the night sky until December of The Hale-Bopp comet was visible for over eighteen months, which was more than double the time of the previous record-holding comet.
It was also considered to be unusually bright which many astronomers credited to the fact that it was abnormally large in diameter compared to most other comets. Popular Culture The Simpsons becomes the longest-running prime-time animated series. Notorious B. Shot killed in drive by shooting The first book in the award winning Harry Potter series by J. Site Pages protected by Copyscape. Patricia Butenis, Ambassador Gold necklace, earring set with diamond studs—18K yellow gold.
Eliot Cohen, Consular Officer Rug—3 borders, 7 horseman, deers, tigers and pumas. Rec'd—July 19, ; Est. Rec'd—May 24, ; Est. James C. Oberwetter, U. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia 1. Silver Bedouin necklace with red beads; 2. Replica of small door from Qassim area; 3. Incense kit with wood and local perfumes.
Nicholas Burns, U. Political Affiars 1. Oil painting by Tihomir Lonxar; 2. Book of Loncar's art. Rec'd—May 1, ; Est. Political Affiars Afghan rug. Rec'd—February 21, ; Est. Gary Grappo, Ambassador Amber glass horse head. Ronald E. Neumann, Ambassador Carpet. John Cloud, Ambassador Commemorative statuette depicting bronze feather on stone base. Rec'd—July 25, ; Est. Benedicte Monroe, Ambassador Necklace, earrings and ring set-yellow and white gold Rec'd—July 1, ; Est.
Elaine Neumann, Ambassador 22K gold necklace, earring and ring set. Rec'd—February 6, ; Est. Agency: Central Intelligence Agency [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance General Michael V.
Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Silver two bottle ink stand, in a rectangular footed tray with pen groove and two hinged top ink wells centering a removable bell. Rec'd—February 2, ; Est. General Michael V. Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Single strand pearl necklace, with karat white gold clasp. Rec'd—March 29, ; Est.
Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Filigree silver mounted and oval cabochon agate scabbard sword, 20th Century in a fitted case. Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency karat gold figure of a cow-form divinity on a wood plaque base.
Rec'd—June 5, ; Est. Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency karat yellow gold medallion in a fitted red reptile case. Rec'd—September 28, ; Est. Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Silk rug, 9 feet by 6 feet, red ground with five vertical rows of lozenge medallions on light green and ivory ground, geometric guard border on light blue ground.
Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Visconti fountain pen with karat white gold banded faux tortoise body in a fitted case. Rec'd—December 10, ; Est. Hayden, Director, Central Intelligence Agency Jeweled embossed silver round box together with a group of five silver pendants. Rec'd—January 21, ; Est. Kappes, Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency Two stainless steel gentleman's and lady's automatic water resistant wristwatches, Cartier each in a fitted gold stenciled red leather case.
Rec'd—July 9, ; Est. Kappes, Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency Bronze group of the Horse Race, sculpted as two mounted horses at the finish line, on a green verdigris partial patinated terrain base, mounted on a walnut plinth with leather belt strapping. Rec'd—April 7, ; Est. Kappes, Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency Brass mounted mother-of-pearl and bone inlaid walnut flint-lock-rifle, 19th Century, with octagonal steel barrel and walnut stock inlaid with mother-of-pearl brass and bone.
An Agency Employee Icon of St. George Slaying the Dragon, last quarter 19th Century, with Cyrillic inscription on reverse. Rec'd—April 29, ; Est. An Agency Employee Gentleman's stainless steel automatic chronograph wristwatch with date and calendar with a stainless steel flexible band, Longines.
Rec'd—July 17, ; Est. An Agency Employee Silk rug, 4 feet 10 inches by 3 feet 1 inch, navy blue ground with palmette and trellising vine field, centering a pulled star medallion on rose ground with a navy border.
Rec'd—May 13, ; Est. An Agency Employee Silk rug, 4 feet 10 inches by 3 feet 2 inches, ivory ground with palmette and trellising vine field centering a pulled star medallion on light rust ground, floral spray and ivory spandrels, complementary guard border on red ground. Rec'd—November 11, ; Est.
Agency: Committee on Standards of Official Conduct [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance The Honorable Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the U.
House of Representatives One framed, colored-glass and stone painting. Rec'd—June 21, ; Est. Agency: Defense Intelligence Agency [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U.
Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Colonel Robert Rosedale, Defense Attache, Saudi Arabia Mont Blanc pen. Rec'd—August 26, ; Est. Rec'd—June ; Est. Agency: Department of Agriculture [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Mike Johanns, U.
Agency: Department of Army [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Brigadier General Daniel P. Major General Ann E. Colonel Victoria A. Lieutenant Colonel James D. Agency: Department of Commerce [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Carlos M.
Agency: Department of Defense [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. General Peter Pace, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Knife with leather sheath—Barcode —reticulated steel blade depicting brasstone cross, brasstone arrow, silvertone ship, signed with limited edition no. The scenes are historic places in Warsaw, Poland. The Honorable Robert Gates, Secretary of Defense Country Plaque—DB a Barcode A, brass tone roundel displaying dagger and crossed rifles over row of 4 stars over presenter name, all affixed to wood board with metal foot, in presentation box.
In presentation box with Bahraini emblem and presentation plaque from King of Bahrain to Robert Gates. Admiral Edmund P. Note presentation plaque inside lid. Lieutenant General William M. The Honorable Kenneth J. Artist listed Chao-chung Hsu, an award winning Taiwanese artist.
Lieutenant General Jeffrey B. Agency: Department of Education [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Agency: Department of Navy [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U.
Admiral Michael G. Mullen and Spouse, Chief of Naval Operations Large ornate wooden chest, ornate blue and white floral vase and ornate fabric.
Mullen and Spouse, Chief of Naval Operations 1. Vel Statue of St. George slaying the dragon; 2. Jewelry box with Russian building painted on it; 3. Russian Ladies Bracelet. Rec'd—2-Nov; Est. Mullen, Chief of Naval Operations 1. Rec'd—9-Nov; Est. Rear Admiral Nevin P. Vice Admiral Mark J. Rear Admiral James D. Gold and pearl bracelet; 2. Gold and green slippers; 3. Black sheer overgown with pouch 4. One turquoise and one tan cloth 6. Sheer black and pink table cloth 7.
Rear Admiral Allen G. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Admiral Henry G. Ulrich Commander U. Rec'd—April , ; Est. Rear Admiral Jeffrey L. Rec'd—January , ; Est. Rec'd—March , ; Est. Agency: Department of the Air Force [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U.
Rec'd—May 5, ; Est. Colonel William G. Rec'd—May 14, ; Est. Lieutenant General Gary L. Colonel Gregory A. Rec'd—5 June, ; Est. Lieutenant Colonel Scott H. Colonel Michael G. Rec'd—28 June, ; Est. Rec'd—6 May, ; Est. Colonel Cassandra R. Rec'd—8 November, ; Est. Rec'd—11 November, ; Est. Agency: Department of the Interior [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Honorable Dirk Kempthorne, Secretary, U.
Department of the Interior Glass Art. Agency: Department of the Treasury [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U. Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance Henry M. Paulson, Jr. Robert M. Agency: Office of the Director of National Intelligence [Report of tangible gifts] Name and title of person accepting the gift on behalf of the U.
Government, estimated value, and current disposition or location Identity of foreign donor and government Circumstances justifying acceptance 5 U. Agency: U. Rec'd—April 30 to May 10, ; Est. Rec'd—December 11 to 13, ; Est. Hugh Barton, Toxicologist Travelers cheques to cover cost of 2. Rec'd—November 5 to 7, ; Est. Rec'd—March 8 to 9, ; Est. Rec'd—April 3 to 5, ; Est. Rec'd—June 3 to 6, ; Est. Rec'd—May 21 to 25, ; Est. Rec'd—June 2 to 10, ; Est. Rec'd—May 22 to 25, ; Est.
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Veterans Affairs Department. Administrative practice and procedure. Consumables: assorted chocolates, candies, nuts, and snacks.
Household Item: silver metal box with 4 small silver containers and silver utensil held in glass case. Household Item: leather jewelry box with El Salvador seal. Artwork: colorful painting of a bull; held in gold frame. Household Item: silver mosaic box with tree and grapes on center surrounded by Mother of Pearl; lined with wood.
Start Printed Page Household Item: ornate Waterford crystal footed bowl with scalloped border and etched words of presentation. Consumables: live Shamrocks. Clothing: black Icebreaker merino wool peacoat.
Household Item 9 : Mother of Pearl picture frame, four vases, three wind chimes, and a candle holder; held in leather box. Desk Accessory: silver and enamel Conway Stewart ink pen with maroon, gold, and olive green mosaic design. Medallion: gold ornamental piece with the state emblem of Lithuania Vytis: The White Knight surrounded by ornate gold horses; mounted on a flat amber stone. Household Item: deep blue porcelain and silver bowl. Household Item: blue lapis lazuli bowl.
Clothing: black and gold traditional Afghan vest with white ties. Clothing: white traditional Afghan pants suit. Religious Item: hand-painted icon of St. Consumables: 4. Household Item: green, beige, and red plaid lambswool blanket. Religious Item: pink pearl prayer beads with attached diamond pendant. Household Item: sterling silver and finished wood Hermes tray.
Artwork: bronze statue of a horse; held in a blue leather box. Consumables: assortment of chocolates, fruits, and cookies; held in large tin. Household Item: small green dish.
Consumables 17 : boxes of an assortment of candies, fruits, chocolates, and holiday popcorn. Holiday Item: gold-tone beaded snowflake Christmas ornament.
Household 4 : cream colored napkins with gold trim and beaded napkin holders. Holiday Item: gold-tone papier-mache Santa covered in glitter, by Ino Schaller. Accessory: tan Vicuna scarf with fringe; held in wooden box; engraved. Household Item: decorative porcelain bowl with hand-painted floral designs, by Richard Ginori; held in box.
Household Item: rock crystal ashtray. Collectable: gold replica of the Temple of Heaven accented with multicolored Swarovski crystals with 5 figurines of the Olympic Mascots; held in brown leather box with leather portfolio holding certificates of authenticity.
Artwork 2 : abstract paintings of nature, by Mrs. Artwork: bronze molding of a man dancing; held in a gold-tone frame. Artwork: silver statue of a Morin Khur; engraved; held in wooden box.
Clothing: royal blue cashmere jacket. Household Item: burgundy rug with blue, green, orange, and cream accents. Consumable: assortment of nut pastries. Artwork: silver-tone statue of Hammurabi's Code of Laws; held in plexiglass box. Household Item: multicolor inlaid wooden box. Consumables 3 : gift basket with mixed fruit, a bottle of Springleaf iced tea, and a bottle of Desert Pearls Non-Alcoholic Cabernet.
Desk Accessory: black Mont Blanc pen. Accessory: brown leather APEC portfolio with zipper. Collectable: gold Mariner's Astrolabe; engraved. Shoe Care: R. Shoes: R. Household Item: black leather box hand-crafted from Kangaroo and Barramundi leather. Accessory: sterling silver R.
Accessory: kangaroo leather cardholder. Desk Accessory: ancient red gum paperweight. Desk Accessory: ancient red gum card box. Kelly Rowland helping loved ones affected by Texas winter storms. Lifestyle brand Draught Season links beer and Black history in crafty campaign. Halle Berry says her 1st kiss was with a girl, and she learned this video. Ne-Yo and wife are expecting 3rd child photo. Health IQ. Business Exchange. Small business owners are using Clubhouse to rapidly grow their businesses.
Andre drops new capsule clothing collection. AM Wake Up. AM Wake-Up Call welcomes guests who are building a legacy. A Seat At The Table. Author Kevin Powell explains why the art of Black storytelling is important. CNN anchor apologizes for offensive Tiger Woods remarks. Tiger Woods seriously injured in single-car accident. In October , even before the United States declared its independence, George Mason and one hundred Virginia neighbours of George Washington organised a voluntary militia unit the Fairfax County Independent Company of Volunteers and elected Washington the honorary commander.
For their uniforms they chose blue and buff , the colours of the Whig Party , the opposition party in England, whose policies were supported by George Washington and many other patriots in the American colonies. When the Continental Army was established in at the outbreak of the American Revolution , the first Continental Congress declared that the official uniform colour would be brown, but this was not popular with many militias, whose officers were already wearing blue.
In the Congress asked George Washington to design a new uniform, and in Washington made the official colour of all uniforms blue and buff. Blue continued to be the colour of the field uniform of the US Army until , and is still the colour of the dress uniform. In , the soldiers gradually changed their allegiance from the king to the people, and they played a leading role in the storming of the Bastille. After the fall of Bastille, a new armed force, the Garde Nationale , was formed under the command of the Marquis de Lafayette , who had served with George Washington in America.
Lafayette gave the Garde Nationale dark blue uniforms similar to those of the Continental Army. Blue became the colour of the revolutionary armies, opposed to the white uniforms of the Royalists and the Austrians. Napoleon Bonaparte abandoned many of the doctrines of the French Revolution but he kept blue as the uniform colour for his army, although he had great difficulty obtaining the blue dye, since the British held naval control in the Atlantic and blocked the importation of indigo to France.
Napoleon was forced to dye uniforms with woad, which had an inferior blue colour. It was replaced with uniforms of a light blue-grey colour called horizon blue.
Blue was the colour of liberty and revolution in the 18th century, but in the 19th it increasingly became the colour of government authority, the uniform colour of policemen and other public servants. It was considered serious and authoritative, without being menacing.
In , when Robert Peel created the first London Metropolitan Police , he made the colour of the uniform jacket a dark, almost black blue, to make the policemen look different from the red coated soldiers, who had on occasion been used to enforce order.
The traditional blue jacket with silver buttons of the London "bobbie" was not abandoned until the mids, when it was replaced for all but formal occasions by a jumper or sweater of the colour officially known as NATO blue. The New York City Police Department , modelled after the London Metropolitan Police, was created in , and in , they were officially given a navy blue uniform, the colour they wear today. Navy blue is one of the most popular school uniform colours, with the Toronto Catholic District School Board adopting a dress code policy which requires students system-wide to wear white tops and navy blue bottoms.
Elector Frederic William of Brandenburg gave his soldiers blue uniforms engraving from When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in , blue became the uniform colour of the Prussian Army. Uniform of a lieutenant in the Royal Navy Marine blue became the official colour of the Royal Navy uniform coat in George Washington chose blue and buff as the colours of the Continental Army uniform. They were the colours of the English Whig Party, which Washington admired.
Metropolitan Police officers in Soho, London During the 17th and 18th centuries, chemists in Europe tried to discover a way to create synthetic blue pigments, avoiding the expense of importing and grinding lapis lazuli, azurite and other minerals. The Egyptians had created a synthetic colour, Egyptian blue, three thousand years BC, but the formula had been lost.
The Chinese had also created synthetic pigments, but the formula was not known in the west. In a German druggist and pigment maker named Johann Jacob Diesbach accidentally discovered a new blue while experimenting with potassium and iron sulphides. The new colour was first called Berlin blue, but later became known as Prussian blue.
By it was being used by the French painter Antoine Watteau , and later his successor Nicolas Lancret. It became immensely popular for the manufacture of wallpaper, and in the 19th century was widely used by French impressionist painters.
Beginning in the s, Prussian blue was imported into Japan through the port of Nagasaki. It was called bero-ai , or Berlin blue, and it became popular because it did not fade like traditional Japanese blue pigment, ai-gami , made from the dayflower. Prussian blue was used by both Hokusai , in his famous wave paintings, and Hiroshige.
The prize was won in by a chemist named Jean Baptiste Guimet, but he refused to reveal the formula of his colour. This was the beginning of new industry to manufacture artificial ultramarine, which eventually almost completely replaced the natural product. In a German chemist named a. Von Baeyer discovered a synthetic substitute for indigotine , the active ingredient of indigo. This product gradually replaced natural indigo, and after the end of the First World War, it brought an end to the trade of indigo from the East and West Indies.
In a new synthetic blue dye, called Indanthrone blue , was invented, which had even greater resistance to fading during washing or in the sun. This dye gradually replaced artificial indigo, whose production ceased in about Today almost all blue clothing is dyed with an indanthrone blue. Thomas Gainsborough 's The Blue Boy includes "the lavish lapis lazuli, the darker indigo pigment and the paler cobalt. The 19th-century Japanese woodblock artist Hokusai used Prussian blue , a synthetic colour imported from Europe, in his wave paintings, such as in The Great Wave off Kanagawa.
A synthetic indigo dye factory in Germany in The manufacture of this dye ended the trade in indigo from America and India that had begun in the 15th century. The invention of new synthetic pigments in the 18th and 19th centuries considerably brightened and expanded the palette of painters.
Turner experimented with the new cobalt blue, and of the twenty colours most used by the Impressionists , twelve were new and synthetic colours, including cobalt blue, ultramarine and cerulean blue. Another important influence on painting in the 19th century was the theory of complementary colours, developed by the French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul in and published in He demonstrated that placing complementary colours, such as blue and yellow-orange or ultramarine and yellow, next to each other heightened the intensity of each colour "to the apogee of their tonality.
The colours brighten each other. Renoir used the same contrast of cobalt blue water and an orange sun in Canotage sur la Seine — Both Monet and Renoir liked to use pure colours, without any blending. Monet and the impressionists were among the first to observe that shadows were full of colour. In his La Gare Saint-Lazare , the grey smoke, vapour and dark shadows are actually composed of mixtures of bright pigment, including cobalt blue, cerulean blue, synthetic ultramarine, emerald green, Guillet green, chrome yellow, vermilion and ecarlate red.
Cobalt blue , a pigment of cobalt oxide-aluminium oxide, was a favourite of Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh. It was very stable but extremely expensive. Van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo, "'Cobalt [blue] is a divine colour and there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things Van Gogh described to his brother Theo how he composed a sky: "The dark blue sky is spotted with clouds of an even darker blue than the fundamental blue of intense cobalt, and others of a lighter blue, like the bluish white of the Milky Way Claude Monet used several recently invented colours in his Gare Saint-Lazare He used cobalt blue , invented in , cerulean blue invented in , and French ultramarine , first made in The Umbrellas , by Pierre Auguste-Renoir.
Renoir used cobalt blue for right side of the picture, but used the new synthetic ultramarine introduced in the s, when he added two figures to left of the picture a few years later. In Vincent van Gogh's Irises , the blue irises are placed against their complementary colour, yellow-orange. Blue used to create a mood or atmosphere. A cobalt blue sky, and cobalt or ultramarine water. He wrote of cobalt blue, "there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things.
Blue had first become the high fashion colour of the wealthy and powerful in Europe in the 13th century, when it was worn by Louis IX of France , better known as Saint Louis — Wearing blue implied dignity and wealth, and blue clothing was restricted to the nobility. Blue gradually returned to court fashion in the 17th century, as part of a palette of peacock-bright colours shown off in extremely elaborate costumes.
The modern blue business suit has its roots in England in the middle of the 17th century. Following the London plague of and the London fire of , King Charles II of England ordered that his courtiers wear simple coats, waistcoats and breeches, and the palette of colours became blue, grey, white and buff.
Widely imitated, this style of men's fashion became almost a uniform of the London merchant class and the English country gentleman. During the American Revolution, the leader of the Whig Party in England, Charles James Fox , wore a blue coat and buff waistcoat and breeches, the colours of the Whig Party and of the uniform of George Washington , whose principles he supported. The men's suit followed the basic form of the military uniforms of the time, particularly the uniforms of the cavalry.
Brummel created a suit that closely fitted the human form. The new style had a long tail coat cut to fit the body and long tight trousers to replace the knee-length breeches and stockings of the previous century. He used plain colours, such as blue and grey, to concentrate attention on the form of the body, not the clothes. Brummel observed, "If people turn to look at you in the street, you are not well dressed.
Originally the coat and trousers were different colours, but in the 19th century the suit of a single colour became fashionable.
By the late 19th century the black suit had become the uniform of businessmen in England and America. In the 20th century, the black suit was largely replaced by the dark blue or grey suit. It quickly became the colour of the nobles and wealthy. Joseph Leeson, later 1st Earl of Milltown, in the typical dress of the English country gentleman in the s. Portrait by Joshua Reynolds Beau Brummel introduced the ancestor of the modern blue suit, shaped to the body.
Man's suit, Dark blue suits were still rare; this one is blue-green or teal. Man's blue suit in the s, Paris. Painting by Caillebotte. President John F. Kennedy popularised the blue two-button business suit, less formal than the suits of his predecessors. In the 21st century, the dark blue business suit is among the most common style worn by world leaders. At the beginning of the 20th century, many artists recognised the emotional power of blue, and made it the central element of paintings.
During his Blue Period — Pablo Picasso used blue and green, with hardly any warm colours, to create a melancholy mood. In Russia, the symbolist painter Pavel Kuznetsov and the Blue Rose art group — used blue to create a fantastic and exotic atmosphere. Matisse wrote, "A certain blue penetrates your soul.
In the art of the second half of the 20th century, painters of the abstract expressionist movement began to use blue and other colours in pure form, without any attempt to represent anything, to inspire ideas and emotions.
Painter Mark Rothko observed that colour was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.
In fashion blue, particularly dark blue, was seen as a colour which was serious but not grim. In the midth century, blue passed black as the most common colour of men's business suits, the costume usually worn by political and business leaders. Public opinion polls in the United States and Europe showed that blue was the favourite colour of over fifty per cent of respondents.
Green was far behind with twenty per cent, while white and red received about eight per cent each. In , a German immigrant in San Francisco, Levi Strauss , invented a sturdy kind of work trousers, made of denim fabric and coloured with indigo dye, called blue jeans.
In , they were raised to the level of high fashion by Vogue magazine. Beginning in the s, they became an essential part of uniform of young people in the United States, Europe, and around the world. Blue was also seen as a colour which was authoritative without being threatening. United Nations peacekeepers wear blue helmets to stress their peacekeeping role.
The 20th century saw the invention of new ways of creating blue, such as chemiluminescence , making blue light through a chemical reaction. In the 20th century, it also became possible for one to own a shade of blue. The French artist Yves Klein , with the help of a French paint dealer, created a specific blue called International Klein blue , which he patented.
It was made of ultramarine combined with a resin called Rhodopa, which gave it a particularly brilliant colour. The baseball team the Los Angeles Dodgers developed its own blue, called Dodger blue , and several American universities invented new blues for their colours.
With the dawn of the World Wide Web , blue has become the standard colour for hyperlinks in graphic browsers in most browsers, links turn purple after visiting their target , to make their presence within text obvious to readers. The Blue Rider , by Wassily Kandinsky , For Kandinsky, blue was the colour of spirituality: the darker the blue, the more it awakened human desire for the eternal.
The Russian avant-garde painter Pavel Kuznetsov and his group, the Blue Rose , used blue to symbolise fantasy and exoticism. This is In the Steppe — Mirage Blue jeans , made of denim coloured with indigo dye, patented by Levi Strauss in , became an essential part of the wardrobe of young people beginning in the s. Vivid blues can be created by chemical reactions, called chemiluminescence. This is luminol , a chemical used in crime scene investigations. Luminol glows blue when it contacts even a tiny trace of blood.
Blue neon lighting , first used in commercial advertising, is now used in works of art. The Story Bridge in Brisbane , Australia illuminated in blue light for ovarian cancer awareness.
A man of the Tuareg people of North Africa wears a tagelmust or turban dyed with indigo. The indigo stains their skin blue; they were known by early visitors as "the blue men" of the desert. Various shades of blue are used as the national colours for many nations. A painting by William Hogarth from shows a polling station with the blue flag of the Tory party and the orange flag of the Whigs. A map of the US showing the blue states , which voted for the Democratic candidate in all the last four Presidential elections, and the red states , which voted for the Republican.
Blue stripes on a traditional Jewish tallit. The blue stripes are also featured in the flag of Israel. Vishnu , the supreme god of Hinduism , is often portrayed as being blue, or more precisely having skin the colour of rain-filled clouds.
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