A trade organization whose members include independent music publishers and other members of the entertainment community. The AIMP's mandate is to educate music publishers and other entities about current industry trends and platforms. A spotted shaft is seen;. And then it closes at your feet. And opens further on. An act passed by Congress that made it legal for consumers to copy records at home for private, non-commercial use without fear of committing copyright infringement.
This act also imposed a tax on digital-audio recorders and digital audiotapes, a portion of which would be paid as royalties to the record industry. A computer-based listing which contains title and production information for cue sheets. Lengthens the value of a note or notes. The composer, lyricist, record producer, artist or other creator.
Copyrights that were registered between and are granted an automatic renewal term, without the writer having to file a renewal registration form. Automatic writing:. A feature of occult practice in earlier times.
Seen to be evidence of psychic ability. It was thought that a spirit was guiding the hand of the writer. Similar to what happens with an Ouija board. In timed writing exercises and at some other times when we have this flow going it seems to be more a matter of believing in the idea that is at hand and letting it have its say than in evaluating it and criticizing it as a final draft. It is important to allow this flow to continue even if we have to lighten up as we would if we found our table saw binding up as it cut through a thick piece of wood.
Evolved from passages of dance music, usually in an operatic context, into the popular, full-scale Romantic classics of Tchaikovsky and Stravinsky. Black Box Royalties:. Unclaimed royalties for which a publisher or writer is named but cannot be traced by a collection agency. Writers who are owed royalties but cannot be found are often referred to as lost writers. Many US songwriters who sell their music internationally, but are not signed to a publishing company with representation abroad, often become lost writers and lose their mechanical royalties.
A type of license issued by a performing rights society allowing a music user to play or perform all compositions controlled by all publishers represented by that society. The user will generally pay a yearly fee that allows them to use all licensed songs without limit. Blanket licenses are typically issued to nightclubs, TV networks and radio stations.
Music publishers sometimes enter into blanket licenses with specific outlets with respect to their catalogs. For example, a publisher might give a television production company a blanket license to utilize any song in their catalog or a limited list of songs for a previously agreed upon rate.
This would be in lieu of securing an individual sync license for each use. In jazz and blues, a blue note also worried note is a note that — for expressive purposes — is sung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard. Typically the alteration is between a quartertone and a semitone, but this varies among performers and genres. One quality that they all have in common, however, is that they are lower than one would expect, classically speaking.
But this flatness may take several forms. On the one hand, it may be a microtonal affair of a quarter-tone or so. Here one may speak of neutral intervals, neither major nor minor. On the other hand, the lowering may be by a full semitone--as it must be, of course, on keyboard instruments. It may involve a glide, either upward or downward. Again, this may be a microtonal, almost imperceptible affair, or it may be a slur between notes a semitone apart, so that there is actually not one blue note but two.
A blue note may even be marked by a microtonal shake of a kind common in Oriental music. The degrees of the mode treated in this way are, in order of frequency, the third, seventh, fifth, and sixth. A genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African-American work songs and European-American folk music.
Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common.
Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars.
Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society. A clever remark, witty comment, witticism. From the French meaning "good word. The person responsible for setting up and scheduling an entertainer's performances. The agent is paid a percentage of the performance fee. Unauthorized recording offered for sale. A section in a song that goes away from the normal chord structure and melodic line that adds variety to a song.
It works as a linking passage at all between one section and another. It's a separate and intervening section of song which is neither 'verse' nor 'chorus'. Bridges often end on the dominant chord or the key, which make it seem natural to go back to the start of a verse. Or the bridge can lead to a new key if a modulation is desired. Most of the bridges I've written are eight bars of music and words.
I've experimented with giving the appearance of a key change if not actually changing keys. I've found ways to seem to make an excursion out of the key and then come back to verse or the beginning of the chorus through a fresh progression of chords. One example of this is my song, When the First Leaves Fall. One good example of a four-bar bridge is to be found in the Sons of the Pioneers' classic song, Tumbling Tumbleweeds , written by Bob Nolan.
The lyrics for that section are: " I know when night is gone, that a new world is born at dawn. An American company that made shaving cream. Burma Shave signs were posted all over the country alongside roadways. Five small red signs with white letters were placed about one-hundred feet apart.
Each was printed with one line of a four-line couplet, except for the last which advertised the name, Burma Shave. Always humorous, travelers would look forward to reading them. Here are a few:. A representative who helps the musician with financial planning, investment decisions, tax matters, monitoring of income from contracts, estate planning and other financial matters.
A designation for radio play of country and western music. Now called simply country music. The foremost mechanical licensing, collections, and distribution agency for Canadian music publishers. The careful order of ideas in a song to create the desired effect. The verse tends to be the place where the setting and stage directions are found so that the chorus will have its say. You've got to get all the elements of the joke in and in the proper order or you don't have a punch in the punch line.
It went something like 'whipper, snapper, topper, capper' and it decreed that a good comedy bit had to set up the joke and then snap the laugh or punch line and then if it is a good bit, top the laugh with another level and if it's to be a truly great bit, cap it off with a really big laugh.
Giving thought to which recording artist would be the best one to record a song. In the past, songs needed to respect a certain standard of acceptable language.
This was mostly due to the need to fit into the format of radio broadcasts. Swear words and sexual themes were suppressed. Birds do it, bees do it, even educated fleas do it, let's do it, let's fall in love.
In , the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America MPAA was formed partly out of concern that certain scandals involving Hollywood personalities would bring government censorship to the movies. They hired Will H. Hayes to initiate a black list, insert moral clauses into actors' contracts, and in created the Production Code that prescribed what was morally acceptable in film. This was replaced in by the voluntary rating system, G, M, R, and X.
Today with the proliferation of media, there is no restraint at all on the kind of language and references to behavior; sex, drugs, misogyny, violence, etc. It still makes sense for a songwriter to be sensitive to the consciousness of the listener and not contribute to a degradation of enlightened communication.
Usually the title, or bottom line. The essential element or concept that brought the song about. Is it valid? Is the idea worthy of a song and is it handled well? The chords that make up a song. Jazz players in the '20s and '30s used to jam on what they called, 'the changes. I've Got Rhythm was a model for many jams and songs that came out of them. Two note ornaments using the upper neighbor and lower neighboring tones of a note.
Music for musicians playing the pieces that the songwriters wrote. Usually a series of chords with certain rhythms and note lengths depicted.
There are also the charts published by Billboard and other entertainment magazines that show sales activity. This is what is meant by 'top of the charts. The Character Song. Francis James Child was a Harvard professor in the s who traveled the British Isles collecting ballads. Without collecting the tunes, he published several volumes of ballads.
Each one is numbered and referred to as Child: 37 etc. Circle-Back Ending:. Using elements presented in the course of the song again at the end in a way that gives a sense of resolution. This juxtaposition can lend another level of meaning to the thought, give it emphasis, and leave the listener with a clearer sense of the message of the song. The Circle of Fifths:.
The circle of fifths or circle of fourths is the relationship among the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. Represented by the clock face, each number is replaced with the name of a key.
Moving around the circle from C at the top, the next number would be G, five scale degrees above C, then D, then A, E, and so on. Each succeeding key also adds a sharp to its key signature, G has one, D has two, etc.
Each scale is altered to correct notes that may need a sharp or flat in flat keys, but not both in the same key. Minor keys are represented in a similar fashion, starting at the top of the circle, the key of C, A minor or Am is the 'relative minor' of the key of C so it would take its place in the 'high noon' position.
Moving around the circle clockwise, Em would be associated with G, Bm with D, etc. Going across the circle will show the relationship of the I, IV, and V chords the tonic, sub-dominant and dominant, the three chords most often employed in musical compositions, and their relative minors.
This relationship would hold true for all keys, and can be a helpful clue to finding interesting harmonizations by seeking out interesting tone qualities in related, even distantly related keys. A pulse from a MIDI file or a metronome used to keep time during the recording process.
This can also serve as a guide to musicians who overdub a part later in the process of completing the production. It's a skill to play along to a click track, and it is advisable for singers and instrument players to practice playing to a metronome. The act or process of knowing; perception. Also the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived, etc.
There is always room for at least one good funny song on the charts. In the fifties there would be many vying for radio time. George Jones' career song until the recent He Stopped Loving Her Today , was White Lightning , a song extolling the effects of the corn liquor of the same name. Ray Stevens has delighted country audiences with clever and silly songs like Guitarzan , and The Streaker.
A recent song on the country charts by David Frizell warned, "I'm gonna hire a wino to decorate our home. Writing funny songs seems to require a sense for the really absurd things that we all either do or have seen others do. Lou and Peter Berryman have hit the mark with many excruciating and wonderful songs. In A Chat With Your Mother , the mother describes a series of rough characters and ends each verse with, "It's from them I would expect to hear the F word, not from you.
Mark Graham has explored a sort of pseudo-scientific vein of humor. One recent lyric he adapted from the Greek classic Oedipus Rex. A line which sticks in my memory is "He killed his pa and he married his ma, they don't even do that in Arkansas. Derived from 'accompaniment,' musicians in an ensemble will play chords and countermelodies emphasizing rhythm behind the singer or lead player.
In a rock or folk band, a guitarist or piano player will accompany by playing primarily root-position triads consisting of the notes of the chord known as the root, 3rd, and 5th.
In a jazz band a guitarist or pianist will comp by playing a variety of chords that include the notes of the chord known as the 3rd, 7th, 9th, and 13th jazz chord players often omit the root, because the bass player usually plays the root.
There is an effect developed by jazz guitarists where a series of chords played on each quarter note keeps voices moving behind the melody of the song. Compulsory Mechanical License:. A license allowing anyone to record a song that has been commercially recorded as long as they pay the royalties set by a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel. Once you release your song commercially for the first time, you have no control over who records it from there on out.
All they have to do is pay you 9. A composition written for a solo instrument. The soloist plays the melody while the orchestra plays the accompaniment.
Evolved from various forms of works using a solo instrument throughout the Baroque era and by the end of the eighteenth century denoted a work invariably in three movements fast-slow-fast.
It was designed principally as a work to demonstrate the virtuosity of the soloist, and was often written for the composer's own use as a soloist. One who directs a group of performers. The conductor indicates the tempo, phrasing, dynamics, and style by gestures and facial expressions. New material, one or two notes that connects two motives or two phrases together. Groups of tones that are harmonious when sounded together as in a chord. Consonance in Lyrics:.
Song contests have been initiated in many places throughout the country. Most offer serious prizes, cash, studio time, even record deals. It has been helpful to many writers to have the recognition and validation that comes with being a winner.
There are many spiritual aspects to the process and to the effects of good songwriting and some may not wish to subject this to the materialism and competitiveness that is inevitably a part of song contests. Each writer must make his own choice in these matters.
Controlled Composition:. A clause in some artist contracts limits how much record labels will pay for songs written, co-written, or owned and therefore controlled by the artist on whose album it appears. The record company will generally pay the publisher of the controlled composition a reduced rate, which tends to vary from 50 - 75 percent of the statutory rate. The publishing rights to a song are owned by two or more parties. A re-recorded version of a song by one or many subsequent artists after the initial recorded version has been released.
To collaborate in the creation of a song. Also the song created by collaboration. Creative Listening:. A list of the music used in a television program or motion picture by title, composer, publisher, timing and type of usage background, feature, theme, usually prepared by the producer, or music supervisor of the program or film. A song that brings elements into is as it goes along so that each verse is longer. A commercially released recording of a song.
Short for demonstration. It is a finished studio or home-recorded track that you use to pitch the song. Can be as simple as a singer with piano or guitar. A work based on a pre-existing work. This can be a translation, dramatization, fictionalization, art reproduction, abridged or condensed version, or any other transformation or adaption of a work.
Under U. Copyright Law, the only person who can grant the rights for a derivative work to be created is the holder of the copyright for the original work. Deus Ex Machina:. Taken from the Latin, means God from the machine. It refers to the abrupt resolution of a problem or conflict with some contrived, artificial plot device that steps in without any previous warning.
It also touches on a similar concept, the 'ghost in the machinery' which has a very different meaning along the lines of an inanimate object taking on the semblance of a spiritual being. Diatonic Notes and Scales:. Elements derived from the modes and transpositions of the white note scale C to C on the white keys of the piano.
In some usages it includes all forms of heptatonic scale that are in common use in Western music the major, and all forms of the minor. A contract may designate how downloads are classified and paid for. PDD or DPD stands for permanent digital download or digital phonorecord delivery, both are used in contracts. A digital download is considered a phonorecord and is considered a mechanical replication. The DMCA also criminalizes the distribution of copyright-protected material, and targets music, film, and software piracy in particular.
Audio signals picked up by a microphone are converted into a stream of numbers which accurately represent the wave-form of the sound. This is referred to as 'analog-to-digital conversion.
To play back a digital sound recording, the numbers are retrieved and converted back into their original analog waveforms. This is the 'digital-to-analog conversion' part of the process. The method by which these sound waves are converted into digital information is called sampling. The ordinary CD is playing back samples recorded at A similar process is used for video recording. The other issue in digital recording is the 'word size.
If there are more increments, or 'bits' in the sample, a greater resolution, a clearer sample is possible. Similar to using a larger film negative for clearer resolution. Commonly sixteen and twenty-four bit samples are used, although the word size must be reduced in any case to sixteen to be played back on a consumer grade CD player. Also called streaming — when a song is playable online. Pandora and other online digital radio stations employ digital streaming into their business models.
There is currently no standard rate for royalties for streaming. Spotify pays less than 1 cent per stream, Rhapsody pays about 1 cent. Dionysus and Apollo: Creative chaos versus order and calm. Also called 'blue' material. The famous song Rum and Coca Cola, began life as a Calypso song and achieved popularity with many nightclub audiences.
There are dozens of suggestive and highly suggestive verses that have been sung to this song over the years. One of my favorites is:. Goode in popularity and that he was afraid that he would be remembered for a song that he wrote as a gag. The Divine Madness:. DIY: Do it Yourself. It is easier from an artist to take on many aspects of their own career management.
Publicity, bookings, even recording, editing and distribution are easier in the Internet world. It may be that eventually professional services will become available, but in the interim there is no need to wait to do professional work.
No need to ask permission. Literally, a statement with two meanings. Many people have experienced the beginnings of a song in a dream.
Dream journals can be a good source of ideas, and many have explored the language and symbolism of dreams. The waking mind, you see, is the least serviceable in the arts. In the process of writing one is struggling to bring out what is unknown to himself. To put down what one is conscious of means nothing, really, gets one nowhere.
In lyric writing, a dummy line is one that's stuck into the rough draft of a lyric in lieu of a better solution. It keeps the song moving where it might otherwise stall. A dummy line is temporary, and will often be tweaked or replaced entirely before the song is ready for performance. The joining together of two phrases usually by having the last note of the 1st phrase become the first note of the next phrase.
Enharmonic Interval:. The right of a copyright owner to exclusively authorize recording, performance, or other uses of his work. Exclusive Songwriter Agreement:. A contract between a publisher and a songwriter in which the songwriter, for a percentage of any royalty income, assigns all songs written during the term of the contract to the Publisher.
In music publishing, to seek sources of revenue for a song. Exercises for Songwriters:. A collection of musical lead sheets intended to help a performer quickly learn and perform new songs. Each song in a fake book contains the melody line, basic chords and sometimes lyrics - the minimal information needed by a musician or small group to make an impromptu, extemporized arrangement of a song, or fake it. The fake book is a central part of the culture of playing music in jazz, where strong improvisation abilities are expected from comping rhythm section players piano, electric guitar, double bass, drum kit and lead instruments which play the melody and improvise lengthy solos over the chord progression.
Also called double rhyme. When the last two syllables of a word rhyme with an earlier word. By contrast, almost every regional and traditional music festival has now made some provision for emerging songwriters to present their songs. Some offer awards while some just provide a place and an audience and no other formal recognition. One example of an established song competition is the New Folk segment of the Kerrville Folk Festival held every spring in Texas. Ornamental phrases played by a lead instrument to fill in a space on a recording or performance.
Drummers also employ fills in the space between sections of a song. The idea that first thought is best thought comes to us from Eastern teaching. Every writer must develop some way of getting back to this first thought moment even after many second thoughts. This is in the same category as trying not to think of monkeys. I usually set up the recorder and do at least a half hour of a running first draft just to get some of the kinks out and to selectively forget what I can go back and evaluate later.
It's good to do this in a place where you don't need to apologize if you moan or cry or laugh out loud. An element of copyright law that grants the publisher or copyright owner control over the work's first use. Though the custom is to charge the statutory rate, the publisher or copyright owner can decide who gets to record a copyrighted work for the first time and how much to charge them. Fixed in a Tangible Medium of Expression:.
A term coined by the Copyright Act meaning that an original literary, artistic or intellectual work has a valid copyright as soon as it is written down or recorded in a manner sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be perceived, reproduced or communicated for a period of more than transitory duration. Most simply, music made up and played by and for people, as opposed to commercial or royal patronage.
Similarly, folk may sound an incongruous rubric to use in reference to contemporary pop and rock forms, but I think it should be clear by now that their simpler strophic structures have traditional folk roots. So it makes sense without too much trouble. It is dedicated, however, to someone who understands better than anyone I know what Western civilization really means — and what it still has to offer the world. With great deference to him, I thought civilization, from to civilize, better in the sense opposed to barbarity, than civility.
That only revived with the building of Chartres cathedral, dedicated though not completed in , and was showing signs of fatigue with the Manhattan skyscrapers of his own time. Civilization was the chateaux of the Loire. It was the palazzi of Florence. It was the Sistine Chapel. It was Versailles. Music and literature made their appearances; politics and even economics occasionally peeked in. In this book I take a broader, more comparative view, and I aim to be more down and dirty than high and mighty.
My idea of civilization is as much about sewage pipes as flying buttresses, if not more so, because without efficient public plumbing cities are death-traps, turning rivers and wells into havens for the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
I am, unapologetically, as interested in the price of a work of art as in its cultural value. To my mind, a civilization is much more than just the contents of a few first-rate art galleries. It is a highly complex human organization. Its paintings, statues and buildings may well be its most eye-catching achievements, but they are unintelligible without some understanding of the economic, social and political institutions which devised them, paid for them, executed them — and preserved them for our gaze.
If barbarism had an antonym for Johnson, it was the polite though sometimes also downright rude urban life he enjoyed so much in London. A civilization, as the etymology of the word suggests, revolves around its cities, and in many ways it is cities that are the heroes of this book.
It is as much about forms of land tenure as it is about landscapes. The success of a civilization is measured not just in its aesthetic achievements but also, and surely more importantly, in the duration and quality of life of its citizens.
And that quality of life has many dimensions, not all easily quantified. We may be able to estimate the per-capita income of people around the world in the fifteenth century, or their average life expectancy at birth. But what about their comfort? How many garments did they own?
How many hours did they have to work? What food could they buy with their wages? Artworks by themselves can offer hints, but they cannot answer such questions. Clearly, however, one city does not make a civilization. A civilization is the single largest unit of human organization, higher though more amorphous than even an empire.
Civilizations are partly a practical response by human populations to their environments — the challenges of feeding, watering, sheltering and defending themselves — but they are also cultural in character; often, though not always, religious; often, though not always, communities of language.
Carroll Quigley counted two dozen in the last ten millennia. The Forbidden City was under construction in Ming Beijing, while work had begun on reopening and improving the Grand Canal; in the Near East, the Ottomans were closing in on Constantinople, which they would finally capture in The Byzantine Empire was breathing its last. The death of the warlord Timur Tamerlane in had removed the recurrent threat of murderous invading hordes from Central Asia — the antithesis of civilization.
By contrast, Western Europe in would have struck you as a miserable backwater, recuperating from the ravages of the Black Death — which had reduced population by as much as half as it swept eastwards between and — and still plagued by bad sanitation and seemingly incessant war.
A Muslim still ruled in Granada. As for fifteenth-century North America, it was an anarchic wilderness compared with the realms of the Aztecs, Mayas and Incas in Central and South America, with their towering temples and skyscraping roads. By the end of your world tour, the notion that the West might come to dominate the Rest for most of the next half-millennium would have come to seem wildly fanciful.
And yet it happened. For some reason, beginning in the late fifteenth century, the little states of Western Europe, with their bastardized linguistic borrowings from Latin and a little Greek , their religion derived from the teachings of a Jew from Nazareth and their intellectual debts to Oriental mathematics, astronomy and technology, produced a civilization capable not only of conquering the great Oriental empires and subjugating Africa, the Americas and Australasia, but also of converting peoples all over the world to the Western way of life — a conversion achieved ultimately more by the word than by the sword.
There are those who dispute that, claiming that all civilizations are in some sense equal, and that the West cannot claim superiority over, say, the East of Eurasia. No previous civilization had ever achieved such dominance as the West achieved over the Rest. Higher living standards in the West were also reflected in a better diet, even for agricultural labourers, and taller stature, even for ordinary soldiers and convicts. By this measure, too, the West had come out on top.
In , as far as we can work out, the biggest city in the world was Beijing, with a population of between , and , Of the ten largest cities in the world by that time only one — Paris — was European, and its population numbered fewer than , London had perhaps 50, inhabitants.
Yet by there had been an astonishing reversal. With a population of around 6. The rise of the United States saw the gap between West and East widen still further. By the average American was seventy-three times richer than the average Chinese.
As a result, Western civilization became a kind of template for the way the rest of the world aspired to organize itself. Prior to , of course, there was a variety of developmental models — or operating systems, to draw a metaphor from computing — that could be adopted by non-Western societies.
But the most attractive were all of European origin: liberal capitalism, national socialism, Soviet communism. The Second World War killed the second in Europe, though it lived on under assumed names in many developing countries. The collapse of the Soviet empire between and killed the third. To be sure, there has been much talk in the wake of the global financial crisis about alternative Asian economic models. But not even the most ardent cultural relativist is recommending a return to the institutions of the Ming dynasty or the Mughals.
The current debate between the proponents of free markets and those of state intervention is, at root, a debate between identifiably Western schools of thought: the followers of Adam Smith and those of John Maynard Keynes, with a few die-hard devotees of Karl Marx still plugging away.
The birthplaces of all three speak for themselves: Kirkcaldy, Cambridge, Trier. In practice, most of the world is now integrated into a Western economic system in which, as Smith recommended, the market sets most of the prices and determines the flow of trade and division of labour, but government plays a role closer to the one envisaged by Keynes, intervening to try to smooth the business cycle and reduce income inequality. As for non-economic institutions, there is no debate worth having.
All over the world, universities are converging on Western norms. The same is true of the way medical science is organized, from rarefied research all the way through to front-line healthcare. Most people now accept the great scientific truths revealed by Newton, Darwin and Einstein and, even if they do not, they still reach eagerly for the products of Western pharmacology at the first symptom of influenza or bronchitis.
Only a few societies continue to resist the encroachment of Western patterns of marketing and consumption, as well as the Western lifestyle itself. More and more human beings eat a Western diet, wear Western clothes and live in Western housing.
Even the peculiarly Western way of work — five or six days a week from 9 until 5, with two or three weeks of holiday — is becoming a kind of universal standard. Even the atheism pioneered in the West is making impressive headway.
Burgers, Bunsen burners, Band-Aids, baseball caps and Bibles: you cannot easily get away from them, wherever you may go. Only in the realm of political institutions does there remain significant global diversity, with a wide range of governments around the world resisting the idea of the rule of law, with its protection of individual rights, as the foundation for meaningful representative government. It is as much as a political ideology as a religion that a militant Islam seeks to resist the advance of the late twentieth-century Western norms of gender equality and sexual freedom.
It is a statement of the obvious. The challenge is to explain how it happened. What was it about the civilization of Western Europe after the fifteenth century that allowed it to trump the outwardly superior empires of the Orient? Clearly, it was something more than the beauty of the Sistine Chapel. The facile, if not tautological, answer to the question is that the West dominated the Rest because of imperialism.
Misdeeds there certainly were, and they are not absent from these pages. It is also clear that different forms of colonization — settlement versus extraction — had very different long-term impacts. There were empires long before the imperialism denounced by the Marxist-Leninists. Indeed, the sixteenth century saw a number of Asian empires increase significantly in their power and extent.
The Reformation unleashed more than a century of European wars of religion. A sixteenth-century traveller could hardly have failed to notice the contrast. Ming China, too, seemed serene and secure behind the Great Wall. Few European visitors to the court of the Wanli Emperor — can have anticipated the fall of his dynasty less than three decades after his death.
True, the sixteenth century was a time of hectic European activity overseas. But to the great Oriental empires the Portuguese and Dutch seafarers seemed the very opposite of bearers of civilization; they were merely the latest barbarians to menace the Middle Kingdom, if anything more loathsome — and certainly more malodorous — than the pirates of Japan.
And what else attracted Europeans to Asia but the superior quality of Indian textiles and Chinese porcelain? It was only after the raising of the siege that Christendom could begin slowly rolling back Ottoman power in Central and Eastern Europe through the Balkans towards the Bosphorus, and it took many years before any European empire could match the achievements of Oriental imperialism.
The material gap between North and South America was not firmly established until well into the nineteenth century, and most of Africa was not subjugated by Europeans beyond a few coastal strips until the early twentieth.
If Western ascendancy cannot therefore be explained in the tired old terms of imperialism, was it simply — as some scholars maintain — a matter of good luck? Was it the geography or the climate of the western end of Eurasia that made the great divergence happen?
Were the Europeans just fortunate to stumble across the islands of the Caribbean, so ideally suited to the cultivation of calorie-rich sugar? In his History of Rasselas: Prince of Abissinia, published in , he has Rasselas ask: By what means … are the Europeans thus powerful?
The same wind that carries them back would bring us thither. But why their knowledge is more than ours, I know not what reason can be given, but the unsearchable will of the Supreme Being. But is it in fact the case that Europeans were more knowledgeable than other people? Perhaps by they were; scientific innovation for around two and a half centuries after was almost exclusively Western in origin.
As we shall see, Chinese technology, Indian mathematics and Arab astronomy had been far ahead for centuries. Was it therefore a more nebulous cultural difference that equipped Europeans to leap ahead of their Oriental counterparts? That was the argument made by the German sociologist Max Weber. It comes in many variants — medieval English individualism, humanism and the Protestant ethic — and it has been sought everywhere from the wills of English farmers to the account books of Mediterranean merchants and the rules of etiquette of royal courts.
In The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, David Landes made the cultural case by arguing that Western Europe led the world in developing autonomous intellectual inquiry, the scientific method of verification and the rationalization of research and its diffusion.
Yet even he allowed that something more was required for that mode of operation to flourish: financial intermediaries and good government. Institutions are, of course, in some sense the products of culture. But, because they formalize a set of norms, institutions are often the things that keep a culture honest, determining how far it is conducive to good behaviour rather than bad. The results were very striking and the lesson crystal clear. If you take the same people, with more or less the same culture, and impose communist institutions on one group and capitalist institutions on another, almost immediately there will be a divergence in the way they behave.
Many historians today would agree that there were few really profound differences between the eastern and western ends of Eurasia in the s. Both regions were early adopters of agriculture, market-based exchange and urban-centred state structures. In China a monolithic empire had been consolidated, while Europe remained politically fragmented. The answer was that, in the plains of Eastern Eurasia, monolithic Oriental empires stifled innovation, while in mountainous, river-divided Western Eurasia, multiple monarchies and city-states engaged in creative competition and communication.
And yet it cannot be a sufficient one. Look only at the two series of engravings entitled Miseries of War, published by the Lorraine artist Jacques Callot in the s as if to warn the rest of the world of the dangers of religious conflict. Political fragmentation often has that effect.
If you doubt it, ask the inhabitants of the former Yugoslavia. Competition is certainly a part of the story of Western ascendancy, as we shall see in Chapter 1 — but only a part. In this book I want to show that what distinguished the West from the Rest — the mainsprings of global power — were six identifiably novel complexes of institutions and associated ideas and behaviours.
For the sake of simplicity, I summarize them under six headings: 1. Competition 2. Science 3. Property rights 4. Medicine 5. The consumer society 6. Now, before you indignantly write to me objecting that I have missed out some crucial aspect of Western ascendancy, such as capitalism or freedom or democracy or for that matter guns, germs and steel , please read the following brief definitions: 1.
Competition — a decentralization of both political and economic life, which created the launch-pad for both nation-states and capitalism 2. Science — a way of studying, understanding and ultimately changing the natural world, which gave the West among other things a major military advantage over the Rest 3. Property rights — the rule of law as a means of protecting private owners and peacefully resolving disputes between them, which formed the basis for the most stable form of representative government 4.
Medicine — a branch of science that allowed a major improvement in health and life expectancy, beginning in Western societies, but also in their colonies 5. The consumer society — a mode of material living in which the production and purchase of clothing and other consumer goods play a central economic role, and without which the Industrial Revolution would have been unsustainable 6.
In the s, for example, a combination of fiscal and monetary crisis, climate change and epidemic disease unleashed rebellion and the final crisis of the Ming dynasty. This had nothing to do with the West. Likewise, the political and military decline of the Ottoman Empire was internally driven more than it was externally imposed. The critical point is that the differential between the West and the Rest was institutional.
Western Europe overtook China partly because in the West there was more competition in both the political and the economic spheres. Austria, Prussia and latterly even Russia became more effective administratively and militarily because the network that produced the Scientific Revolution arose in the Christian but not in the Muslim world.
In the same way, the earlier industrialization of the West reflected institutional advantages: the possibility of a mass consumer society existed in the British Isles well before the advent and spread of steam power or the factory system.
Even after industrial technology was almost universally available, the differential between the West and the Rest persisted; indeed, it grew wider. With wholly standardized cotton-spinning and weaving machinery, the European or North American worker was still able to work more productively, and his capitalist employer to accumulate wealth more rapidly, than their Oriental counterparts.
With the success of European integration in the s and s, the Western club grew larger. But what about the rest of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, encompassing not just the Balkans north of the Peloponnese, but also North Africa and Anatolia? What about Egypt and Mesopotamia, the seedbeds of the very first civilizations? Is South America — colonized by Europeans as surely as was North America, and geographically in the same hemisphere — part of the West? And what of Russia?
But there is surely a case for saying that the Soviet Union was as much a product of Western civilization as the United States. And its geographical extent was no less the product of European expansion and colonization than the settlement of the Americas. In that sense, what happened in was simply the death of the last European empire. Yet the most influential recent definition of Western civilization, by Samuel Huntington, excludes not just Russia but all countries with a religious tradition of Orthodoxy.
Greece, Israel, Romania and Ukraine do not make the cut; nor do the Caribbean islands, despite the fact that many are as Western as Florida. It is a set of norms, behaviours and institutions with borders that are blurred in the extreme. The implications of that are worth pondering.
Might it in fact be possible for an Asian society to become Western if it embraces Western norms of dressing and doing business, as Japan did from the Meiji era, and as much of the rest of Asia now seems to be doing? These are questions that will be addressed below. Another puzzle about Western civilization is that disunity appears to be one of its defining characteristics. During the First World War, the Germans claimed to be fighting the war for a higher Kultur and against tawdry, materialistic Anglo-French civilisation the distinction was drawn by Thomas Mann and Sigmund Freud, among others.
But this distinction was hard to reconcile with the burning of the Leuven University and the summary executions of Belgian civilians in the first phase of the war. Finally, it is worth remembering that Western civilization has declined and fallen once before. The first version of the West — Western Civilization 1. In its heyday, the Roman Empire was a startlingly sophisticated system.
But that version of Western civilization declined and then fell with dramatic speed in the fifth century AD, undone by barbarian invasions and internal divisions.
In the space of a generation, the vast imperial metropolis of Rome fell into disrepair, the aqueducts broken, the splendid market places deserted. The knowledge of the classical West would have been lost altogether, but for the librarians of Byzantium,40 the monks of Ireland41 and the popes and priests of the Roman Catholic Church — not forgetting the Abbasid caliphs.
Is decline and fall the looming fate of Western Civilization 2. Once so dominant, the economies of the United States and Europe are now facing the real prospect of being overtaken by China within twenty or even ten years, with Brazil and India not so very far behind. The financial crisis that began in also seems to indicate a fundamental flaw at the heart of the consumer society, with its emphasis on debt-propelled retail therapy.
The Protestant ethic of thrift that once seemed so central to the Western project has all but vanished. Meanwhile, Western elites are beset by almost millenarian fears of a coming environmental apocalypse.
What is more, Western civilization appears to have lost confidence in itself. In schools, too, the grand narrative of Western ascent has fallen out of fashion. A survey of first-year History undergraduates at one leading British university revealed that only 34 per cent knew who was the English monarch at the time of the Armada, 31 per cent knew the location of the Boer War, 16 per cent knew who commanded the British forces at Waterloo more than twice that proportion thought it was Nelson rather than Wellington and 11 per cent could name a single nineteenth-century British prime minister.
The musical sampler sent into outer space with the Voyager spacecraft in featured twenty-seven tracks, only ten of them from Western composers, including not only Bach, Mozart and Beethoven but also Louis Armstrong, Chuck Berry and Blind Willie Johnson. The rise of the West is, quite simply, the pre-eminent historical phenomenon of the second half of the second millennium after Christ.
It is the story at the very heart of modern history. It is perhaps the most challenging riddle historians have to solve. And we should solve it not merely to satisfy our curiosity. For it is only by identifying the true causes of Western ascendancy that we can hope to estimate with any degree of accuracy the imminence of our decline and fall.
But this complement may be much inferior to what, with other laws and institutions, the nature of its soil, climate, and situation might admit of. A country which neglects or despises foreign commerce, and which admits the vessels of foreign nations into one or two of its ports only, cannot transact the same quantity of business which it might do with different laws and institutions … A more extensive foreign trade … could scarce fail to increase very much the manufactures of China, and to improve very much the productive powers of its manufacturing industry.
By a more extensive navigation, the Chinese would naturally learn the art of using and constructing themselves all the different machines made use of in other countries, as well as the other improvements of art and industry which are practised in all the different parts of the world. Adam Smith Why are they small and yet strong?
Why are we large and yet weak? With nearly a thousand buildings arranged, constructed and decorated to symbolize the might of the Ming dynasty, the Forbidden City is not only a relic of what was once the greatest civilization in the world; it is also a reminder that no civilization lasts for ever. The impoverished, strife-torn petty states of Western Europe embarked on half a millennium of almost unstoppable expansion.
The great empires of the Orient meanwhile stagnated and latterly succumbed to Western dominance. Why did China founder while Europe forged ahead?
But other explanations were possible. In Europe, on the contrary, the temperate zone is very extensive … it thence follows that each [country] resembles the country joining it; that there is no very extraordinary difference between them … Hence it comes that in Asia, the strong nations are opposed to the weak; the warlike, brave, and active people touch immediately upon those who are indolent, effeminate, and timorous; the one must, therefore, conquer, and the other be conquered. In Europe, on the contrary, strong nations are opposed to the strong; and those who join each other have nearly the same courage.
This is the grand reason of the weakness of Asia, and of the strength of Europe; of the liberty of Europe, and of the slavery of Asia: a cause that I do not recollect ever to have seen remarked.
That was certainly how it appeared to the Earl Macartney after his distinctly disappointing mission to the Chinese imperial court in see below. Another argument, popular in the twentieth century, was that Confucian philosophy inhibited innovation. Yet these contemporary explanations for Oriental underachievement were mistaken. The first of the six distinct killer applications that the West had but the East lacked was not commercial, nor climatic, nor technological, nor philosophical.
It was, as Smith discerned, above all institutional. If, in the year , you had taken two trips along two rivers — the Thames and the Yangzi — you would have been struck by the contrast.
The Yangzi was part of a vast waterway complex that linked Nanjing to Beijing, more than miles to the north, and Hangzhou to the south. At the core of this system was the Grand Canal, which at its maximum extent stretched for more than a thousand miles. Dating back as far as the seventh century BC, with pound locks introduced as early as the tenth century AD and exquisite bridges like the multi-arched Precious Belt, the Canal was substantially restored and improved in the reign of the Ming Emperor Yongle — By the time his chief engineer Bai Ying had finished damming and diverting the flow of the Yellow River, it was possible for nearly 12, grain barges to sail up and down the Canal every year.
But when the intrepid Venetian traveller Marco Polo had visited China in the s, even he had been impressed by the volume of traffic on the Yangzi: The multitude of vessels that invest this great river is so great that no one who should read or hear would believe it. The quantity of merchandise carried up and down is past all belief.
In fact it is so big, that it seems to be a sea rather than a river. It also enabled the imperial government to smooth the price of grain through the five state granaries, which bought when grain was cheap and sold when it was dear. For centuries it had been a thriving centre of the silk and cotton industries. Under the Yongle Emperor it also became a centre of learning. The greatest of the Ming emperors did nothing by halves. The compendium of Chinese learning he commissioned took the labour of more than 2, scholars to complete and filled more than 11, volumes.
But Yongle was not content with Nanjing. The call to end slavery now along with Garrison's more radical rhetoric on African American equality held little widespread appeal as antislavery developed into a national political position.
Many antislavery activists found themselves stretched thin amid the reform's irreconcilable poles. As the popular voice of antislavery, the members of the Hutchinson Family Singers struggled to keep their socially conscious listeners content.
Such a harmonious vision, one that plunged a locomotive labeled for Henry Clay into a background ravine, proved to be a mirage. The Hutchinson musicians understood the importance of their ties to the American Anti-Slavery Society, an organization that shepherded them from the backwoods of New Hampshire to international fame. In the months following their New York penitence, though, the group's members hardly stayed true to the goals of Garrison's antislavery organization.
Instead, they were swept by the strong political antislavery movement that took place in upstate New York, where the founders of the Free Soil Party held a well-attended meeting that settled on a platform that included, among other decrees, the non-extension of slavery into new territory. Many Free Soil adherents were more concerned with the effects of slavery on white workers than with black Americans or the callous practice of human bondage.
As the politician, lawyer, and future Union Army general Benjamin Butler said in "Free labor cannot exist where slavery holds sway. Some of the Hutchinson clan attended the Free Soil convention. They composed new, festive, songs to embrace the latest political antislavery movement. The friction between the Hutchinson Family Singers and the American Anti-Slavery Society reflected the social and political realities of American reform in the s and s.
Yet, even in the hubbub that led to the showdown with the American Anti-Slavery Society, the matter of materialism loomed. Critics characterized the welcome song for Henry Clay as transparent commercialism-"Anything to make money, now-a-days!
Throughout their career they navigated the line between music performance and profit. In , for example, the musicians formed a communitarian society, comprised of their immediate relations, to quell family complaints over the singing troupe's sudden wealth. Asa Hutchinson understood the issue as one of personal and public import: "We cannot be so free to sing high and lofty sentiments to an audience when we feel bound to sing to their Pockets instead of their hearts.
They were also the voice of an antislavery culture that would culminate in Uncle Tom's Cabin The celebrity of the Hutchinson Family Singers spawned a stream of familysinging imitators, from the Parker Family and Alleghenians to the New Hutchinson Family Singers, a second-rate act of the siblings' relatives formed in when the real Hutchinson troupe was in Great Britain. The musicians in the Hutchinson Family Singers worried over such phenomena-and not because they might lose money to competition.
They were concerned over their success. What did it mean that the group's sheet music -where the lithographed expressions of John, Judson, Asa, and Abby Hutchinson stared out from the covers -could be found in many northern parlors, while notes on the inner pages directed what was performed and heard? What did celebrity and wealth signal about the Hutchinsons as individuals and as a group?
The quartet, and many of their listeners, wanted to know whether, as "advocates of human advancement," the Hutchinson Family Singers were a saleable curiosity or a valued addition to American life. And, like many of their peers, the Hutchinsons looked upon one source of the change-the encroachment of market forces-with deep suspicion. Yet those same forces ensured that goods and information moved more quickly to a greater variety of places, more people lived and worked in urban settings, and that a stable, permanent, form of market exchange fostered leisure time for many middle and upper class Americans, who now could purchase for their families what they once had to make: in effect, the market revolution created the possibility for professional music performance.
The books, meetings, museums, and music that filled Americans' lives helped proliferate cultural offerings on a scale previously unimagined. The accomplishment of the Hutchinson Family Singers, the first American music group to employ a message of social protest while earning a significant profit, was inextricably bound to these transformations.
To adequately come to terms with the Hutchinsons' career as social activists and musicians, one must move beyond their personal perseverance-which was legendary in the dismal times from to , when it was easier for them to accumulate debt than applause-to appreciate how they navigated ties to the market as individuals and as public figures. Through an elaborate deployment of religion, reform, and nature in their personal and professional lives, the musicians of the Hutchinson Family Singers crafted an anti-market stance at the same time as they welcomed the market and earned impressive amounts of money.
Raised in a Baptist family in Milford, New Hampshire, a town on the state's southern border, John, Judson, Asa, and Abby Hutchinson were imbued with Christian ideals, not only at home, where events such as a harvest, birth, or death were explained through a religious framework, but in more communal spaces, such as school, where members of the quartet sat in a building that, for a while, served for both Baptist worship and public learning.
Indeed, the teachers in Milford, John remembered years later, often "read the Bible and prayed" in class. At one of her first shows with the brothers, at Dartmouth College in July , the singers noted of the audience, "all Gentlemen, No Ladies. To be seen and heard as an ethical entertainment earned the sanction of the men of Hanover, New Hampshire, who clearly judged the songsters suitable for the entire household. As a "nest of brothers with a sister in it," the Hutchinson Family Singers began to embrace a more intimate public persona.
The group welcomed the new year, , with some of their first public abolitionist offerings at an antislavery meeting in Milford, New Hampshire. On January 4th and 5th, activists gathered to honor Thomas Parnell Beach, a white protestor who had been jailed for his antislavery views.
Recently released from prison, Beach entered Milford's Old Meeting House when suddenly, from the balcony or balcony stairs, the Hutchinson Family Singers "burst down upon" the assembly in song. In the revival tent, ministers read and anticipated the crowd's reactions to present a dramatic display founded on the appearance of spontaneity.
The Hutchinson Family Singers, in their first foray into abolitionist entertainment, established a similar framework. Nathaniel Rogers was one of the first to note how carefully the group's "anti-slavery zeal" was linked to the "popular and striking music of Advent and Revival.
Earlier abolitionist music was based on the more staid Christian hymn tradition, which, according to the then famed church-tune composer Lowell Mason, should feature diatonic melody and harmony, present a limited range of notes preferably no more than an octave , and move along a straightforward rhythm no syncopation. What the group's antislavery listeners heard and saw in a Hutchinson Family Singers performance, then, was often understood as more modern, progressive-the voice of a growing, younger generation.
The bond that John, Judson, Asa, and Abby forged with Christian revivalism and the antislavery movement created a powerful shield against accusations of marketbased materialism. But it certainly did not, in and of itself, solve the issue. The ethics of the group were questioned not only by their critics, who assaulted them for making money from socially conscious song, but, thanks to the more conservative views of certain members of the antislavery movement, even sympathetic listeners voiced concern.
Disappointed that the American Anti-Slavery Society had stooped "to mere excitement to carry on the work," Mott grounded her complaint in Quaker ideology. At the start of , the Hutchinson Family Singers was a struggling act. By the fall, it had replaced the antislavery sensation of Frederick Douglass-as the latest, inspired reform offering.
The antislavery movement, particularly the American Anti-Slavery Society and its subsidiaries, provided the Hutchinsons with a public platform, where they found not only eager listeners and consumers for their music, but an active network of newspapers, meetings, and celebrations that promoted the musicians as a unique antislavery creation.
Under the tutelage of American Anti-Slavery Society leaders such as Nathaniel Peabody Rogers, Frederick Douglass, and William Lloyd Garrison, the music quartet developed into a premier voice for the antislavery movement. The Hutchinsons crafted a style of social activism that was at once entertaining, socially uplifting, and on sale.
As the first American musicians to combine impressive market success and social reform, the members of the group often downplayed their profit and highlighted their protest. In part, theirs was a response to that early American unease with the advance of market forces, which were framed as individualistic, immoral, and dangerous. They also faced the more timeless charge hurled at many a reformer through the ages: the selling of a reform-based ware, whether a newspaper, novel, or song, brings into question the sincerity of a reformer's commitment.
To battle such notions, the Hutchinsons built their antislavery performance on Christian ideas and sounds; they also made overt displays of charity.
John, Judson, Asa, and Abby donated to antislavery and temperance organizations, built spaces reserved for antislavery meetings and entertainment, and, in a move that reflected the economic and authoritative biases among black and white antislavery reformers, publicly passed the monies collected on their behalf to black antislavery advocates. At an reform meeting in Haverhill, Massachusetts, for example, the musicians turned over a collection's proceeds to George Latimer, the famed former fugitive slave, and Charles Lenox Remond, the respected black lecturer.
The chorus of one of the group's most popular tunes announces: "We have come from the mountains, we have come from the mountains, we have come from the mountains of the Old Granite State.
The song "Old Granite State," which contains expressions of antislavery reform and religious piety, explicitly linked the Hutchinson Family Singers to the most recognizable destination in their home state. White Mountain tourism boomed in the s, becoming a near-national ritual for the genteel and the rugged alike. The use of nature, the White Mountains, though, tapped into a commercial strain then familiar to many American consumers.
From guidebooks and promotional pamphlets to the painting of Thomas Cole and the writing of Henry David Thoreau, the marketing of nature was a shared antebellum American experience. In the "Old Granite State," the Hutchinson Family Singers tapped into this strain, which framed a particular, reverent view of nature-Americans were, in effect, trained to uncover a Romantic sublimity by the culture of nature in force at the time.
The New Hampshire origins of the group, which were promoted throughout the s, spited the fact that the quartet spent most of their time on tour-in urban areas such as New York, Philadelphia, and London-and, by , that the brothers had relocated to the Boston suburb of Lynn. On a personal and professional level, the continued identification with the Granite State allowed the musicians an anti-market stance that they believed was key to independence, health, and virtue.
Milford, N. John, Judson, Asa, and Abby heralded their parents' home to provide themselves and their listeners with a stable identity. The burgeoning industrial age in New England, after all, scared many, particularly in older generations, who were overwhelmed by the geographic mobility introduced by technology and the industrial economy. Forever bonded to the Old Granite State, "the New Hampshire vocalists," as some papers took to calling them, and their musical ability were understood to have originated in the wilds of their home state.
Creative genius buttressed local and national concerns in this view-so Beethoven was seen as the product of fertile German land and an example of Germanic brilliance, and the Hutchinsons showcased the richness and depth of New Hampshire, New England, and, ultimately, America.
Such a reputation remained when the group went abroad. Reports from Dublin in noted, "No man can listen to the Hutchinson family without feeling that America-Yankee America has a national music; and none without acknowledging that 'the family' are happy in their illustrations of the harmony of New England. Their supporters' preferred to situate the musicians not as pioneers in a burgeoning economy of American entertainment, but as a troupe of farmers who happened to be musical.
As young adults, the members of the Hutchinson Family Singers rejected the strenuous tedium of the preindustrial farm. While some of their older siblings opted to open hardware and grocery stores in places like Lynn and Boston, the members of the singing troupe expressed their preference for a modern urban America through employment in entertainment.
But, to make money from music, they were forced, time and again, to acknowledge their agricultural roots. And, like many Americans in the pre-Civil War age, despite their professional choices, the musicians believed farm work to be redemptive. On tour, the brothers were like most musicians through the ages-they sometimes got thrills from goofing off, fighting, and acting rude. They were sure, though, that "if we had good hard farm work to do we should not be so earnest to be playing and making nonsensical remarks.
In England, a homesick Asa would dream of his future "and the nice little farm that I will have where I will have sheep, cattle, hens and chickens, a donkey, a horse, a cat, a dog, a neat cottage, a garden, fruit trees, and everything to make a farmer happy.
Onions no go. As the antislavery movement moved toward a full acceptance of free labor ideology, which pushed ideas of social equality and social justice to the fringe of social activism, notions of freedom, free labor, and farming worked hand-in-hand. During a visit to the Florence community experiment in Northampton, Massachusetts, where the Hutchinsons sang and Frederick Douglass "preached" to the "community friends," the musicians toured the society's extensive farm-"They can and will make a home for the free, I hope," Asa said.
And, on arrival at their parents' house after a string of concerts, one member of the troupe announced in their shared journal-"I love the free! The siblings simply found the fame and recompense of professional musicianship more redemptive than back-breaking farm work. Their espousal of religion, antislavery, and the New Hampshire land crafted a potent identity that placed them in professional music for reasons other than profit.
In the end, such a stance opened the way for the Hutchinson Family Singers to become one of the most successfully marketed identities of the s and s. Historians have typically used two distinct explanations, the onset of religious revivalism or the market revolution, to account for the rise in social reform in the antebellum era.
The example of the Hutchinson Family Singers illuminates that a much more intricate array of forces were in play. Using nature, religion, and social reform, the famed music act shunned market-based behavior while, at the same time, embraced the new world of entertainment opened by market forces. The rise of social reform movements such as antislavery thus appears less the product of a new, religious, outburst than the discovery of how such an outburst could be channeled into a commercial endeavor.
As an introduction, picture yourself doing some type of repetitive work, such as on an assembly line, running a textile loom, or, perhaps, in a coal mine. Then, imagine having the opportunity to sing with your colleagues as you work. It would lift your spirits and create a feeling of commonality and community.
Your workplace and your job would become a shared social experience, rather than an isolated one, and potential tedium would be alleviated, with time moving more quickly. Let us escalate this scenario. Imagine you are in the midst of a labor strike due to sub-standard wages, dangerous working conditions, and lack of benefits.
A strike is dangerous, frightening, isolating, and financially precarious, and you only resort to it because you feel that you absolutely must-there is no other choice. You do not strike alone, however, because you feel safer with others sharing the burden, as well as sharing the potentially devastating effects, such as not having money to feed your family and losing your job. Your negotiating is stronger in numbers, and you might have, or be fighting for, union representation.
Imagine yourself on the picket line. Again-and I say this from personal experience-this is a daunting activity and interaction.
There is often an intense police presence, because the threat of violence is frequent, and emotions run very high on both sides. Some workers take on the vacated jobs during a strike-these workers are pejoratively referred to as "scabs"and this causes another level of tension, again with the potential for violence, perhaps as they cross the picket line. This is no joking matter, as people's livelihoods on both sides are at stake.
You and your fellow workers may be harboring years of resentment for what you feel is poor treatment or, perhaps, you are frustrated with what you believe is a poor and unfair wage; the organization you are striking against has its own perspective.
This is all to say that labor issues are fraught with intense emotions, and livelihoods are on the line. There are families to feed and rents to pay. So, you strike. You take a chance. Each striker is concerned about what will happen, but you all find some kind of solace and security in being in this situation with your fellow workers. On the picket line-not a fun activity in and of itself-the idea of fervently and joyfully singing songs to express yourselves, to help pass long tedious hours, perhaps in the heat or cold, to create community and solidarity, and even, perhaps, to allay your fears, is a wonderful and powerful thing.
This can be seen in the faces of the strikers in the photograph that opens this chapter. The striking professor at the front of the line happens to be my father, A. I might very well have been on the picket line that day, as well. Look at the strikers' faces as they sing on the line. They are vigorous, determined, and even joyful; yet I know the pressures that they were all living under.
They all lost income, and some lost their jobs. Certainly, the stress on my father, who was one of the leaders of this faculty strike at San Francisco State College now San Francisco State University in , was intense for a wide range of reasons.
Yet, there they are, walking the picket line and singing in a resolute and exuberant manner. Expressing your anger, frustrations, and goals through song is powerful, and the history of songs of labor and labor unions proves this. Music connected to labor falls under the heading of protest music, but the amount of music in this genre, and its importance to the culture and heritage of the United States, puts it in a category of its own.
In fact, songs revolving around the labor movement dominated much of the protest music genre in the first half of the twentieth century. Additionally, the ties between labor protest music and the civil rights movement and anti-Vietnam War protests, for example, are clear, and influence the Occupy movement even today. There is a great deal of research on this topic, and it tends to be from at least some type of leftist perspective and generally focuses on the workers' point of view.
There is good reason for this. Labor strikes and labor organizing have often been part of what is referred to as progressive politics, a term usually applied to left-leaning perspectives, so it appears to be primarily the province of left-oriented scholars, as opposed to those on the right.
In this essay, I provide an overview of some of this research, as well as a consideration of important songs and artists, the context in which they were written, and how such songs and artists connected with the labor movement and radical politics.
I examine two types of songs concerned with issues of labor and left-wing politics from the early twentieth century through the s: music in a folk style, and works by art music composers.
In the nineteenth century, songs about labor protests were common, and there is some important scholarship in this area. Clark D. Foner's Labor Songs of the Nineteenth Century is a compilation of songs on a wide range of social issues-and which are primarily set, as with many labor songs, to existing popular tunes-as well as songs related to early unions, such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor AFL. Another union, the Industrial Workers of the World IWW, or the Wobblies is particularly crucial to the history of protest music in the early twentieth century.
This important union, founded in and still extant today, was founded as an alternative to the AFL, with the goal of representing all workers, regardless of trade, in a struggle against the "employing class. In addition, their meetings were begun by singing, and "the IWW's use of music as a direct organizing arm inspired later song agitators by offering song as a front-line device for building morale, recruiting new members, and garnering publicity.
Since then, there have been numerous editions, including as recently as The Little Red Songbook primarily included original songs, often set to hymns-such as those used by the competing Salvation Army bands-and popular tunes, which Richard Reuss states "were grounded firmly in real labor experiences in contrast to the verse of other radical groups before His notoriety stems largely from the circumstances surrounding his controversial murder conviction for the killing of a grocer, as well as his subsequent execution by a firing squad in There was an international furor surrounding the trial and his execution, and, ironically, Hill is best known for a song that he did not write, but that instead memorializes him, "I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night.
While the US struggled through fierce economic woes, culminating in the Great Depression, the Marxist vision of the Soviet Union offered an alternative economic and social approach, and appealed to many intellectuals and artists who were intent upon social change. Many artists were intent on employing their art, whether music, painting, writing, or dance, towards that end.
Communism in the United StatesIt is impossible to discuss early workers' songs of protest without reference to socialism and the Communist Party, as its history is intertwined with the labor movement in the US, particularly in the period between the s and the s. During the s, in the early and tumultuous stages of the communist movement in the US, the concept of proletarian music-music of and for the working class-was not a priority.
The predominant musical vehicle was the revolutionary chorus. The vast majority of members of the Communist Party were native speakers of other languages, and a number of these various ethnic groups, largely eastern European, each "developed its own chorus, orchestra, or other musical unit, and some developed several.
Out of the New York John Reed Club grew the Workers' Music League, whose primary goals were "the creation and performance of revolutionary music and … a forum for discussion of how modern music could be used to further the workers' cause. There were few models available for marrying contemporary composition with radical politics, and Hanns Eisler, an Austrian-German composer who studied with Arnold Schoenberg and collaborated with Bertolt Brecht, had a powerful influence on these composers.
The Collective composed and performed new works as well as more established material, all intended as revolutionary music, and was also interested in establishing methods for composing proletarian music. To this end, the Composers' Collective published a collection of their songs, the Workers Songbook, in and Even at a cursory glance, much of the material is clearly for educated, or at least experienced, musicians, and frequently has challenging modernist elements that are problematic for untrained musicians.
It appears that their attempts at a straightforward presentation revolve around their approach to melody, as the accompaniments are particularly tricky, while the melodies are generally more straightforward. The complex approach to music carries over into the language employed in the Songbook, and gives insight into the Collective's overall approach.
In the Foreword they set out two types of revolutionary works: "popular bourgeois tunes to which revolutionary words have been set" and "original tunes by proletarian composers. Consequently, workers did not effectively employ their compositions.
The work of the Collective, however, represents an important movement of artists and intellectuals that felt impelled to engage and support the workers' struggle during the difficult days of the Depression while remaining true to their artistic principles as well as their commitment to leftist causes. While most members were not communists, many were at the very least sympathetic to the Communist Party line.
There was a significant split in the group regarding approaches to the use of music in service of the workers' cause, however. The Red Song Book included folk-oriented material such as songs by Aunt Molly Jackson Jackson and Ella May Wiggins Wiggins , two activist folk artists whose songs were drawn from the southern folk tradition.
Their songs stemmed from extremely contentious workers' strikes-the Harlan County, Kentucky, miners' strike of , and the Gastonia, North Carolina, textile workers' strike of , respectively-as opposed to the modernist compositional style of much of the Workers Songbook. Ray and Lida Auville, singer-songwriters in the folk tradition, also published workers' songs in Songs of the American Worker.
This set up a conflict between the Collective's art music perspective and the Communist Party's cultural critic, Mike Gold, who felt their attitude was elitist and lauded the Auvilles.
This split also reared its head with the performance of Aunt Molly Jackson at a Composers' Collective meeting. Jackson was a radical organizer for the National Miners' Union who adeptly and effectively set lyrics to traditional Appalachian tunes.
After attending some Collective meetings which included debates over what it means to create a good workers' song, Jackson performed some of her material. Reuss states that Charles Seeger recalled the Collective's members "were more bewildered than inspired" by her performance, and that Aunt Molly Jackson was, in turn, unimpressed by the Collective's works. Her performance is referred to as an important turning point in the discussion of the respective efficacy, as workers' songs, of folk-style music versus art music.
The composers of the Collective responded to this controversy-art music versus folk and popular forms-in their own manner: they examined the communist movement's revamped stance on folk and popular styles as they began to assess their own frustrations with their art music approach to reaching the masses. Their frustration with the latter is shown by the fact that the many of the songs in the Collective's last songbook were set to well-known tunes.
Reuss posits that their public split from the dogma of Hanns Eisler further exemplifies the Collective's members' separation from the party line. We are now in year 44 , an amazing feat in the live music business. A portion of proceeds to benefit cancer research. A description from their website: 'The Geckos musical landscape incorporates Caribbean classic steel drum rhythms, New Orleans gumbo groove and a deep soulful solution which can, at times, soothe like warm tropical rain or slightly sting like real life tears.
Very brief bio in BS2. CD recorded at Invisible Sound Studios. Thank you Jay! Liner notes:'It was a time' - P. Equally surprising was their immediate retrieval by loyal roadies Jim Fallows and Ginny Kaufman. Now THIS was roack and roll. No one could then have predicted that the following February, this this same audient would ride a freight elevator as Grok's singer and 2nd guitarist with his bandmates and a quintet of then unknown Bostonians, Aerosmith. The quartet honed their unique sound at local clubs like The Rhapsody where their 'black magic woman' materialized, arizing like an earthbound Aphrodite from its smoky din.
By then, Bill and Colette had resigned. The undersigned tenure And so we arrive at this compendium of available Grok recordings from , including 'The Pepsi Generation,' 5 rare Joy-penned rehearsal tracks, a 'live' concert segment replete with dualing Gibsons and the then de riguer drum solo Fast forward to when the concept of this anthology surfaced from our collective unconscious, subsequently transmogrified into the artifact you now be hold.
We celebrate and document our musical history by augmenting the aforementioned recordings with 4 re-mastered, 70s vintage studio mixes and with new music composed and performed by 4 out of 5 of the band's survivors Don passed away in ; Colette's whereabouts are unknown.
This music was created in accordance with the band's incorruptible aesthetics. Crown this with the bonus of Don's son, Garrett, pounding his rhythm on the opening track in his father's stead, and we bring Grok's legacy into the realm of 'now.
Well worth searching out a copy of this CD --JV Group member correction: Jay Baker not Barker. Apologies to Jay. Guitarist Tice Griffin continues to play and record in California. He also hosts karaoke at night clubs in his hometown. Drummer Bob Zordich continues to play music in his hometown of St. Paul, MN, his current band called Northbound Blue.
The song worked its way up the Cashbox 'Looking Ahead' singles chart similar to Billboards 'Bubbling Under' the Hot chart peaking at 20 on July 5, Gross National Product photo courtesy of Tice Griffin. From Tony Waddy website tonywaddymusic.
Since Paul originally a drummer was playing bass, we didn't have a drummer so Nat Bradley a guitar player offered.
When Amy left, we became a trio and recorded a full disc with Andy Bopp at the same time he was recording Pet Soul with Splitsville. Lots of local shows and a legendary wall of overdrive. Reviewed lovingly as ' Shared several local bills with a band called Splitsville. Tours and releases followed, up through See BS-2 for brief mention. Recorded at Flite Three. This is a very good bio found posted on iTunes:Hamber wasn't a writer; that he's credited with a co-write on his first recording was rare.
Without your own material, it's difficult to get a record company to take a chance on you; there is always a better-looking, more charismatic, and electrifying entertainer they'd rather take a flyer on. But after two singles - both sought after now by Northern soul collectors - it was over. In too deep to get out, Hamber sang where and when he could and kept his eyes open for hookups. A second solo album, 'In a Romantic Mood,' has spread his reputation even further.
His debut folk album featured Hamilton vocals, guitar, bass, harmonica , with The Travelin' Souls consisting of Mac Walter vocals, guitar, mandolin, violin , Archie Warnock vocals, bass, mandolin , Dave Goodman violin, fiddle , with guests Melinda Hamilton vocals , and Mike Jackson bass. Additional members unintentionally omitted from book bio include Ray Lewis dobro , and Tommy Reeves bass -previous bands include Excalibur, Satyr Hill Band The following additions and corrections provided by J.
Keith Hundertmark replaced Gorelick keys, vocals early on Dale Coleman, Jr. Ciesielski went on to Nashville studio and road work see his entry. The group played 'everything from a boot-slappin' boogie or a belly-rubbin' ballad to a crying-in-your-beer tune. I'm thinking an Italian guy with the nickname 'Hitman' will also be inducted someday!
After leaving The Coachmen, Bobby had a band called Misty Blues for three years, then a full-time band called The First Impression for about five years. Bobby Hill circa In he became a solo entertainer billing himself as The Bobby Hill Show, and performed extensively throughout the Baltimore area. While performing in Atlantic City in he created a children's based theme show called 'The Puppetone Rockers' www. From the website: 'The nationally known 'Puppetone Rockers' perform to millions of fans every year.
The Puppetone Rockers captivate audiences with laughter, screaming back audience participation, super positive messages, Great cast of characters, and pure talent. They performed covers of popular folk songs as well as older songs that they adapted to their own arrangements. They also made frequent appearances at Patches 15 Below Coffee House in Timonium, Maryland, and won numerous talent contests held in the Baltimore area.
A recording was made from the off-the-air broadcast as received on a s Philco AM radio and recorded with a reel-to-reel monaural home tape recorder and microphone of the day. The tape sat for 40 years and was recently rediscovered and converted to digital format' by Znemeth Productions, Laurel, MD.
This was Ralph's first band he later changed his name to Ralph Bryan and went on to become a successful blues and studio musician in California until his death in Jon also produced Parts that explore all the songs that had Ralph's favorite leads on them. Billy lived down the street from Steve Small and there was a time we looked at Steve being our drummer. My brother Mike O'Neill - guitar and I would go to Billy's house to practice I think we called ourselves The Impalas - we didn't know there was another group by that name.
After that fell apart, I tried several other groups with no success The Marlins and The Randels come to mind. We played in public several times, but never jelled. Bill's later groups included Naturally Stoned see bio in BS Impulse frequented The Bonfire O.
Lansdowne area teen band. Photo courtesy of Dennis and Pat Trigilio. The Jades. When Howard quit Denny switched to bass. Member Steve Royal provided this photo along with information about Jamal and his other groups. Unfortunately I lost it in my files. Huge apologies to Steve but now it is posted here.
Ad from Chick's Musical Bar, Less than a year after the group formed we added Denny Weston bass to the group. Denny Weston left the group in and was replaced by Eddie DiMarino bass. It was a good run. Circa Photo of the last JOY. Too bad I missed this release for BS2, although a version of the group is briefly noted.
Wilson's former bands included The Truetones, Barn Burners Group seen at Bertha's, Cat's Eye Danny and Charlie formerly of The Rockabilly Rebels. Also performed at Ike's on Wilkens Avenue. Danny continued as a solo artist. Torba and Nesbitt would later become the duo Two Bits.
Ransom and Parezo both formerly of The Deuce Band. Parezo and Ransom went on to join Nimbus Metal band, recording artist formed in early '80s and developed a devoted following throughout the region.
After a long hiatus the group reformed in and resurrected the original lineup of Sean McAuliffe lead vocals , Aubry Bradley guitar , Dave Beall bass , and Karl Reichenbach drums.
Other members through out the group history have included Lou Tonson guitar , Russ Strahan guitar. Tonson passed away in , McAuliffe passed away in Original songs 'You've Gone' and 'Honey Dee' were scheduled for recording late Not known if record was ever actually released.
Band performed throughout the mid-Atlantic region Leah married Russ Kunkel drummer and producer. Their son Nathaniel became an Emmy winning sound engineer.
Her first album was as Cotton Candy on Dunhill Records in She released solo albums in and , then in co-formed The Coyote Sisters releasing albums in and The group continues to perform as of this writing. Aside from music, Leah is an attorney practicing entertainment law. Tim wrote to add a few details about his solo career s and group chronologies. Everyone was an Anne Arundel County music teacher. The youtube video has received over 35, hits and it is currently being played in Russia.
Tim also adds 'For over twenty years I produced EPs and four song cassettes and CDs that were performed and released by my students in school Patriot Label.
My students who were in those groups like to say, 'We were Glee before Glee'. Originals and show group. Played American Legions. Mainly a studio group recording Tim's original material. Tim played solo gigs concurrently. After a brief split in , the group reformed in with the same members. Through the ensuing years other drummers included Ron Carroll, and Walt Higdon.
This was an original music and show group. They performed at bullroasts, weddings, and various night clubs - most notably The Perry House, and as house band at Mimi Lorenzos for four years. Played concerts at The Inner Harbor.
Played various outside patio bars in Ocean City, MD. See brief bio in BS Recording group released self-titled CD on Fowl Records. Actual record release has not been verified.
Photo circa A photo of the group performing live at the Seagull Inn opening for the Ramones was erroneously placed with the biography of Night Train. Leader Gary Brown noted that ' Photo taken by Marjorie Gold. Also, in Lotus Band Michael Hedges played flute in addition to electric guitar. Info from ambiguous city! The opening track, 'Working Hard to Make A Bad Life Worse,' features a band capable of both straightforward melody and sudden left turns into new territory.
Anchored by the precision bass playing of Dave Allen and warm thwack of drummer Mark Stalzer, the quartet is rounded out by the thick chords and brassy ambience of guitarists Sean Lara and Rob Anthony. Sewn together by the vocal interplay of Allen, Lara and Anthony, The Maginot Line relishes every opportunity to enrich the mix with singing that ranges from shouted call-and-response 'Hospital Corners' to three-part harmonies 'Eight by Nine'.
The following from Michael Major's website. This includes recording original music and performing as a duo, and as a full-band concert act In the Baltimore-based band finished their 4th release of original material, Nuclear Baby, available on itunes, amazon and most major online retailers.
Not much known about group yet. There is no listing on the Josie discography. Don't know if any relation, but only local clue is record release of 'Journey Bells' by the Goldtones on Y-R-S label in Performing throughout the mid-Atlantic region, Marten has captivated audiences at music festivals, concert venues, jazz clubs and private social events.
In the '90s she held long term engagements at many premier area hotels including Omni, Hyatt Regency, Hilton, Radisson, Sheraton, Renaissance Royal Stokes at Jazz House Diaries. Again - Gold Edition Jazz Series import In addition her recordings have been featured on dozens of compilation albums. Marten has provided narration for several corporate video productions. Her debut book of short fiction is on the horizon, and she is collaborating with Clem Ehoff to add more songs to their portfolio.
Released 12' single in also released on cassette tape. The group apparently continued on, seen in the early '70s with a line-up of Jimmy McNight organ , with Ken Berry sax , Jimmy Bruce drums , and Joe guitar.
McNight passed away June 17, Later known as the Joe Noto Trio see entry. The Mighty Mondells made recordings at Flite 3 Studios. Paul Greenwood also sang for the Xpressions. The Mondells courtesy of Chris Burley. Records describes the post-punk rock band as a '5-piece alternative indie rock band from Baltimore, MD.
Heavy, melodic, and at times unique rhythms and time signatures. Discography CD EP - ambiguous city! Nucleus of group Davis, Hepburn and Schirmer once of '80s band Kuta. Group was known as My Generation in , then evolved to become known as Seward's Folly Nesbitt left Natch to perform as a solo act at many local lounges including the Playboy Club, Charcoal Hearth, and the Holiday Inn circuit.
Torba later with Zzzap Country group melded classic country, honky-tonk, and and western swing with modern sounds. Released CD 'Telephone. The album also featured guest appearances by former group alumni Barry Morrissey vocals, guitar , and Bruce Sponsler vocals, banjo. The New South Band circa Bass guitarist Ralph Barnes now deceased was added to round out the lineup of the new group called Nightwind. Ralph Stonebreaker exited the band early and the group added Terry Woodall keyboards , Fred Firestone lead vocals , and Rob Hoffman rhythm guitar.
This Band played many American Legion halls and church halls, as well as clubs in Waldorf and Laurel, and many private parties. Bowman went on to join Fortune. Ransom and Parezo both ex- Kilgore Trout. Ransom later with ZigZag and continues with them as of this writing. Murphy later led a jazz group and was a member of Rumba Club. Parezo went on to join P. They played lots of local gigs and private parties as a classic rock band, playing lots of Beatles, Stones, and the like.
Street later with the band Bucky's Brother. We also did recordings with Joey Welz. He was sortof a Jerry Lee Lewis type of character if I remember right I joined the band in the summer after my junior year Simpkins Sr. What a great dude! He never asked for a dime for all of his work and was at every gig. We played almost every Friday and Saturday night with Sunday rehearsals, or once a month Sunday afternoon church dance. Big Larry kept us booked.
Pritchard went on to play with The Esquires, and The Deltas. Larry Simpkins, Jr. During his college years Wayne 'jammed with a lot of folks Among other accomplishments, Wayne co-produced the historical musical 'Viva Santa Fe! Bob Gelotte, later known as 'Gunnar' Gelotte went on to become a songwriter and studio session drummer in Nashville and New York also playing guitar, keyboards, and vocals and appeared on recordings from country to soul.
Perhaps the Noise Patrol's greatest gig was a chance to play at the Baltimore Civic Center in the summer of A professionally recorded cassette of eleven Noise Patrol original songs was released called 'Fly The Flag! Arthur keyboards , and Buzzy London drums. They were house band at The Pump Room in the early '60s. Photo courtesy of Joe Noto. During the mid-'60s Noto's trio featured Art Volpe, Jr.
This trio performed at Pecora's Towson. Noto also worked in bands with Frank Riehl and Pat Moran. Photo courtesy of Danny Sadler. Around Dean and Ricky moved on to different bands. Danny went to Nashville to record see his bio and released a couple of singles. In this group, Dean, the featured lead guitarist, could play and sing rock music, while Danny played and sang country and oldies. This expanded their repertoire. The group performed at all the local venues circa They were regulars at The Park Lounge in Brooklyn.
Drews was also a member of Pennsylvania based recording group Jeff Davis and the Confusionists. In addition to countless other engagements, Windy Ridge performed the second Saturday of every month at the Friendly Inn for 26 years! High schools.
Addition to discography is retrospective CD consisting of previously unreleased studio instrumental tracks recorded on various sessions along with two new tracks from Keyboardist Mark O'Connor continues to be active in the studio.
Mark provides lead vocals and everyone contributes backing vocals. Early trio also included guitarists Chick Hall, Jr. A popular band throughout the region, and mid-Atlantic states. When rock club Hammerjacks was booking country acts, On The Rise was chosen to open for many of them.
The group also toured as backing band for Ronnie Dove, and backed the Platters and the Drifters for local appearances. Group members in early '90s included bass guitarist Denver Twigg ex-New West Band prompting Lester's switch from bass to guitar. The photo from a dance they performed on April 17, at Woodlawn High School was mislabeled in the school yearbook as The Playmatesand is actually One Another.
Barry notes that 'I've never seen this picture before, but it is my group from the early 70's before I returned to Summer's Misfits. Fritz T. Bauhaus type of moody shit. We were playing with a lot of hair Metal bands, but we were doing well for the simple fact it was different at that time. An entire book could certainly be devoted to The Orioles.
An outline of their history through the s and a brief capsule of the subsequent years is included in Baltimore Sounds volumes 1 and 2. The group actually continued through various incarnations for many more years. Lead vocalist Sonny Til went on to a solo career in and The Orioles continued through a succession of incarnations.
In the '70s Til performed with an Ink Spots offshoot group that also doubled as an incarnation of The Orioles. In Til contacted former Oriole Albert 'Diz' Russell and persuaded him to reform the group for a reunion show. Diz was not an original Oriole but had joined the group in when his group The Regals replaced the original group becoming the second incarnation known as The New Orioles.
The group did so well that they remained together and continued performing. The Young Bucks Band, a well renowned group in their own rite, were a regular backing band for the Legendary Orioles. Fast forward again In Diz retired after 60 years of performing.
In addition to the extensive singles discography noted in BS2, the Orioles have many 'greatest hits' album releases through the years. Born blind. Opened for David Allen Coe Upon his return to civilian life he resumed a singing career appearing locally at Gamby's, as well as local dances and private parties. By he was in search of a record contract. It is unknown if he released any recordings.
Ralph was Ralph Bogorad Bryan ex-Hitchhikers. His friend Jon Berle wrote 'This group that Ralph Bryan formerly Bogorad played lead in was perhaps the first to experiment with feedback. Ralph used to amaze every guitarist in Baltimore because he could play just like Clapton or Jeff Beck, and would put his guitar on top of his Fender Bandmaster and make it feed back, making Hendrix-like sounds before anyone even knew what feedback was. His band won the Civic Center Battle of the Bands one year doing the song 'Nowhere Man' with perfect four-part harmonies.
Ralph, who died from complications of brain cancer in , played on numerous recordings with a band named Daddy Please and they released a 45, and in the '90ss he played live weekly in Santa Rosa at a blues club with Elvin Bishop's bass player Evan Palmerston.
One of the songs he co-wrote with Gary St. Clair in Doctor Rock and Roll has been covered around the world by various groups. The original version is on his website. He was much in demand and all musicians loved paying with him. Bass guitarist Tom O'Neill tells that 'being in a band in the '60s was the thing to do. We played teen centers, CYO's, JCC's, community pools, private parties, debutante balls and anyplace who would pay for live entertainment.
We were aspiring to be rock 'n roll stars. Loving life and playing music. Those were great times. His mother Rose Small managed the band. The Patriots recorded at Edgewood Studios in D. In summer of Mike, Ronnie, and Jim left the group, being replaced with Mark Bacon lead guitar , and Bob Marvin organ and lead vocals. Along with Tom bass , and Steve drums they continued together as a quartet while in college, eventually breaking up in the summer of The group may have later been reorganized by Steve and Bob using the Tony Vee monicker, but it is not yet verified.
Thanks to Tom O'Neill. See BS-2 for partial bio.
Rimjhim Ke Tarane Leke - S. D. Burman - Baazi / Kala Bazar (Cassette), Black Hole Sun (Vinny Gruvhunter & Jason B Remix) (Vocal) - Soundgarden / Lenny Kravitz - Black Hole, School Day (Ring! Ring! Goes The Bell) - Various - The Ultimate RocknRoll Party (CD), Hes Just A Scientist (Thats All) - John D. Loudermilk - 12 Sides Of John D. Loudermilk (Vinyl, LP, A, Background Music For The Historical Narration - Various - Threads Of Glory- 200 Years Of America In, Колыбельная Светлане (Lullaby To Svetlana) - Tikhon Khrennikov* - Верные Друзья/True Friends (CD, Al, Thirty Frames A Second - Simple Minds - Celebration (Cassette), Rex Tremendae - Mozart* - Theodor Guschlbauer, Michel Corboz - Musique Sacrée / Sacred Music / Geist, Its My Life - Madball - Ball Of Destruction (Cassette), Suffragette City - David Bowie - Bowie At The Beeb (CD, Album), Rebel Rouser - Various - 120% Kings Of Rock N Roll (CD) Wuthering Heights - Various - Best Of The Seventies (CD)